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389 Cards in this Set

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What does the bacterial CELL WALL protect against?  
OSMOTIC PRESSURE

some environmental stresses
What is the primary structure of the bacterial cell wall and how many of them are found in a cell wall?  
Peptidoglycans 2!! N-acetyl glucosamine N-acetyl muramic acid (Repeating molecules held together with peptide chains)  
What are some difference between gram-negative and gram-positive cell walls?  
Gram-positive cell wall is rich in peptidoglycan with multiple layers of meshwork Gram-negative cell wall contains very little peptidoglycan.  
What 3 components of bacterial cell walls are unique to gram-positive bacteria?  
Teichoic acid (stabilizes cross linkages like "mortar") M protein (aids in adherence) Mycolic acid (Found only in mycobacterium)  
What are 2 forms of TEICHOIC acid?  

*think TECH instead of TEICH -what kinds of technical acids allow linkages?
The Technical Acids:
1. WALL teichoic acids go HALF WAY through the wall
2. LIPOteichoic acids go COMPLETELY through a wall and link to the plasma membrane.

WALL/HALFWAY LIPO/LINK THROUGH

**Both forms protrude above the wall giving cell a negative charge  
What are 4 things we should know about M protein?  
1. Virulence factor 2. Protrudes from cell wall 3. Required for infection 4. Highly susceptible to mutations  
Name 4 things that should be known about mycolic acid?  
1. found in mycobacterium species 2. Consists of a waxy lipid incorporated into cell wall 3. Makes cells extremely resistant to environmental stress 4. Acts as a barrier against antibiotics and host defenses  
Gram-negative cell walls have a unique outer membrane known as what and what does it do?  
Lipopolysaccharide layer (LPS) Composed of lipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Fastens the outer membrane to the peptidoglycan layer. It serves as a major barrier to the outside world for the gram-negative cell.  
The outer layer of a gram-negative bacterial cell wall functions as an _________ with what 2 parts?  
Endotoxin Lipid A O polysaccharide  
What does LIPID- A do and when is it released?  
ANCHORS the LPS part of the outer layer
Released when cell DIES 
What are O polysaccharides? (4)  
1. Carbohydrate chains that are part of the outer layer 2. Variable from one bacterial species to another 3. Recognized by the adaptive immune response 4. Sometimes used as a diagnostic marker (e.g. E. coli 0157:H7 is designated by O polysaccharide 157  
How many structures can be found outside of a bacterial cell wall and on your hand?
5
**no bacterium has all 5 at the same time.  
3 structures found OUTSIDE the bacterial cell wall that are involved with ADHERENCE (staying in) are?  
1. Glycocalyx
2. Fimbriae
3. Pili  
2 structures found outside the bacterial cell wall are primarily used for motility, what are they?  
1. Flagella 2. Axial filament  
What is the glycocalyx composed of, where is it produced and what does it provide?  
A sticky substance made up of polypeptides, polysaccharides or both. It is produced in the cytoplasm and secreted to the outer part of the cell wall. Provides protective element agains environmental stress and can be used for nutrition  
If the glycocalyx is loosely attached to the wall it is called a _____________; if adhered tightly it is called a _______. What do these variations do for the organism?  
SLIME layer LOOSE
CAPSULE is TIGHT

Gives organism ADHERENCE CAPABILITY 
What requirement for infection is the glycocalyx used for and in what regions of the body?  
Adherence Respiratory and Urinary tract infections  
What are 4 clinical significances of the glycocalyx? (1 slime layer, 3 capsule form)  
1. Slime layer is associated with some forms of dental decay Capsule: 1. Inhibits phagocytosis 2. Many not infectious w/o a capsule 3. Capsule genes can be transferred b/w organisms  
What are fimbriae and pili found on, what are they composed of?  
Gram-negative organisms; pilin protein subunits  
In what 2 ways can pili give bacteria motility and what are pili involved in developing?  
1. twitching or gliding movements 2. through extension and retraction of the pili Involved in the development of biofilms (mouth and teeth)  
PILI are used to facilitate?
How does this help a microbe?
TRANSFER of genetic material from one bacterial cell to another;
Pili uses:
-Antibiotic RESISTANCE
-TOXIN production
-Defense AGAINST HOST defenses  
What are axial filaments, what do they do and what are they used for?  
Flagellum like structures found on spirochetes; Wrap around bacterial cell and are confined to the space b/w plasma membrane and cell wall; Used for motility and cause the entire organism to rotate like a corkscrew.  
2 significant clinical details about AXIAL FILAMENTS: 

They look like little jackhammers. What could a microbe do with a jackhammer?
CORKSCREW = BORE IN
BLOOD = OTHER TISSUES, TOO
4 flagella configurations?  
1. monotrichous-1 flagellum located at the end of the cell 2. Amphitrichous-2 flagella, one at each end of the cell 3. Lophotrichous-2 or more flagella located at the same end of the cell 4. Peritrichous-flagella surround entire cell  
What does the flagella allowing movement allow for the bacteria?  
Opportunistic infections Escape from host defenses Systemic infection  
What are the 6 major structures found INSIDE a bacterial cell wall?
RIPPEN!
RIPPEN
Ribosomes
Inclusion bodies
Plasma membrane
Plasmids
Endospores
Nuclear
PLASMA MEMBRANE is akin to visceral and parietal peritoneum, or serous and pleural membranes.
Definiton?
Function?
An INDOORS membrane that surrounds the cell matrix and organelles. It's like the cell's peritoneum that provides a barrier from the outside of the cell.
ENERGY GENERATOR, TRANSPORT, SECRETION
Targets the PLASMA MEMBRANE

Damage to plasma membrane of bad guy does what?  
ANTIBIOTICS
INHIBIT DNA replication,
DESTROY ability to produce energy,
cause LOSS of membrane integrity and
DESTRUCTION of the cell.  
The region where DNA is located in bacteria is called the ______.  
nuclear region; 1 chromosome which contains all the genetic info. required by the organism.  
PLASMIDS:
definition?
function?
transferred via?
~EXTRA-CHROMOSOMAL pieces of DNA seperate from main DNA structure

~Carry GENES for toxins and resistance to antibiotics

~Transferred via PILI
What protein forming organelle is a major target for antibiotics?  
ribosomes  
ENDOSPORE formation is via? (the definition is in the word)

Are endospores gram +/- ? Exception is Carol Burnett's gran'ma.
SPORULATION

Form under ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS

Gram-POSITIVE (1 exception coxiella burnetti - Carol Burnett's gran'ma could be very negative)  
What 3 things can endospores do for a bacterial cell?  
1. confer a type of dormancy 2. Extremely resistant to heat, desiccation, toxic chemicals, UV irradiation and antibiotics 3. Bacteria can survive for extraordinary lengths of time in the endospore state  
Name 3 things that are of clinical significance of SPOROGENESIS
1. If bacterium is pathogenic when it goes dormant, it will be pathogenic when emerges PATHO=PATHO

2. Endospores are resistant to almost all disinfectants, antiseptics and antibiotics ANTI-ANYTHING RESISTANT

3. Resistant to heat and can cause problems for the food industry, e.g. botulism  HEAT RESISTANT
EACH division of a bacteria is called a ___________ .

The time BETWEEN divisions is called the ______________.
generation

generation time  
Short TIME generation (reproduction) means?
INCREASE in NUMBER in host
What are the 3 temperature ranges for bacterial growth?  
1. Psychrophiles-grow at cold temperatures 2. Mesophiles-grow at moderate temperatures 3. Thermophiles-grow at high temperatures  
The optimum growth temperature is what?  
temperature at which the HIGHEST RATE of growth occurs  
What pH do most bacteria prefer? What do you call bacteria that grow at a low pH and is helicobacter pylori one of them?  
7.0
ACIDOPHILE - (unusual)

Helicobacter pylori does NOT like acid, but it grows a buffer around itself to protect it from stomach acid all the same.
Why do some bacteria die in the presence of OXYGEN?  
SUPEROXIDE FREE RADICAL that STEALS electrons and KILLS the organism  
What are the 2 types of bacteria that grow IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN, whether or not they need it?

**What do both types produce?  
AEROBES require oxygen for growth
FACULTATIVE ANAEROBES can grow with or w/o oxygen

**both produce SOD (SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE!) converts free radical to molecular oxygen and peroxide.
What 2 ENZYMES do bacteria produce to deal with PEROXIDE?  
CATALASE & PEROXIDASE

Catalase - converts peroxide to water and oxygen Peroxidase - converts peroxide to water
How does pH negatively affect protein structure?  
Excess of H ions causes bonds to break, changing 3D structure, these changes destroy protein function  
How does OSMOTIC PRESSURE affect bacteria?  
It is the pressure exerted on bacteria by their environment. It can INHIBIT GROWTH.  
Bacteria that LOVE SALT?

3 categories: ___________Regular Joe Schmoes, _________Bungee Jumpers, _________Sluts
HALOPHILIC (I love salt!)
Obligate regular Joe Schmoes, Extreme Bungee Jumpers, Faculty Sluts

1. OBLIGATE REGULAR SCHMOES- requiring high salt concentration
2. EXTREME BUNGEE JUMPERS requiring very high levels of salt
3. FACULTATIVE (FACULTY SLUTS)- can grow either way, either in high or very high salt concentrations
What are the 3 major bacteria categories based on oxygen use?  
1. Obligate aerobes - require oxygen for growth 2. Obligate anaerobes - cannot survive in the presence of oxygen 3. Facultative anaerobes - can grow w/ or w/o oxygen  
What are the 2 SMALLER categories of BACTERIA based on OXYGEN use?  
1. AEROlerant - GROWS in oxygen but does not use it in metabolism
2. Micro AEROphile - requires only low levels of oxygen for growth  
What does the medium SODIUM THIOGLYCOLATE function and location?
Forms an OXYGEN GRADIENT during growth
AEROBIC organisms grow at the top (OXYGEN!)
ANAEROBIC organisms grow at the bottom (HIDING)
FACULTATIVE ANaerobes grow throughout the medium (SLUTS that don't care if they come up for air or not)
What does a GasPak Jar do and what 2 types of organisms can grow in this medium?  
Provides an oxygen-free environment; only obligate and facultative anaerobes can grow via this method  
SELECTIVE media?

DIFFERENTIAL media?
SELECTIVE fosters growth of some media over others.

DIFFERENTIAL medium contains ingredients that can differentiate between organisms.  
What are the 4 stages of bacteria growth?  
1. Lag phase 2. Log phase 3. Stationary phase 4. Death phase  
What is the lag phase of bacterial growth?  
Bacteria are adjusting to their environment, varies depending on the organism and the environment.  
What is the log phase of bacterial growth?  
The number of bacteria doubles exponentially. This phase lasts only as long as a suitable level of nutrients are available. Bacteria are the most metabolically active and most susceptible to antibiotics in this phase.  
Some bacteria are finicky, fastidious little f***ers. What do they need?
Lots of GROWTH FACTORS, instead of the usual one or two.
However, this puts them under the radar lab-test wise and they often produce FALSE NEGATIVE results, fooling everyone.
What is the STATIONARY phase of bacterial growth?  
The number of cells DIVIDING = DYING b/c of decreasing availability of nutrients.  
What is the DEATH phase of bacterial growth?  
LOG phase

(logarithmic decline phase where numbers of dividing bacteria drop. Exhausted food supply and build up of feces).
More than 80% of infectious diseases are caused by _________.  
VIRUSES

which can "help" bacterial/fungal infections be worse  
Because they cannot live outside their hosts, viruses are defined as ____________________________ parasites.
OBLIGATE INTRACELLULAR parasites (they cannot live outside a cellular host)

A productive infection is their goal!  
What 3 types of cells can viruses infect?  
Bacteria (called bacteriophages) Plant cells Animal cells They are specific for a certain cell type  
What is an intact viral particle called? Its nucleic acid is surrounded by a protein coat called _______ which is made up of what?  
Virion Capsid Capsomeres  
Viruses are either ________ or _______-based.
DNA or RNA  
Structural subunits of capsids, bonded together for strength and to protect the genetic material of a VIRUS.
CAPSOMERES

HELICAL and ICOSOHEDRAL
Capsomeres can be categorized based off their location in the capsid. For instance, in an icosahedral capsid, there are 12 vertices.
HELICAL virus SHAPES (2)?  
ROD & FILAMENT

straight and relatively rigid VS.flexible, curved or coiled  
The extrusions on a helical virus are ________. Which releases and which attaches?  
proteins Neuraminidase releases and Hemagglutinin attaches  
ISOCAHEDRAL virus shape:
1. number of faces?
2. points of symmetry? 
20 triangular faces
12 points of symmetry  
What are the 2 types of ICOSAHEDRAL viruses?


 
Simple and Complex  

*think Herpes. There is no good way to remember that icosahedral has to do with simple and complex.
CATHEDRALS ARE BOTH SIMPLE AND COMPLEX.
Many viruses form _________ which increase their VIRULENCE.
What 2 things must associate with the PLASMA MEMBRANE of the HOST for this shield to gel?
ENVELOPES

GLYCOPROTEINS and OLIGOSACCHARIDES from the virus associate with the plasma membrane of the host cell.
What do all viral envelopes have?  
Phosphlipid bilayer  
4 ways VIRAL ENVELOPES can differ from one another?  
Size, morphology, complexity, composition  
What can GLYCOPROTEINS don these shoes in the viral envelope in order to ?
SPIKES or other structures on the outside of the virion that can be used to ATTACH to a host cell.  
What role does genome packaging have with viruses and what 3 ways are they packaged?  
Role in the infection; 1. Directly in the capsid 2. Enclosed in special proteins 3. Enclosed in proteins from the host cell  
What occurs with a LYTIC infection?  
The host cells fill with virions and BURSTS. -> cell death (get in, spread and get out causing an inflam. response)  
What occurs with a lysogenic infection?  
AKA latent infection Viral genome becomes incorporated into the host cell's DNA. It can remain this way for some time, the host cell lives.  
What are the 6 steps in a lytic infection?  
Attachment Penetration Uncoating Biosynthesis Maturation Release  
When does lytic attachment occur?  
When a virion binds to specific receptors on a host cell. Some viruses require a co-receptor  
What must a virus do after it has attached?  
Gain entry into a host cell, it must also uncoat or remove the capsid.  
In what three places can CAPSID UNCOATING occur?  

(2 membranes and a 'plasm walk into a bar, take off their coats and caps...)
PLASMA membrane
NUCLEAR membrane 
CYTOPLASM
Biosynthesis of new viral components can be complex, viral genomes are either ______ or ______. What does it use to make copies of itself?  
DNA or RNA Uses host cells proteins to make copies of itself  
What is involved in viral MATURATION and what are the 2 steps?  
MOVEMENT of newly made viral components to specific sites in the host cell.
. Intracellular trafficking
2. Assembly (take over protein synthesis making new ASSEMBLY OF CAPSIDS)  
In what 2 ways can VIRIONS BE RELEASED from the host cell?  
LYSIS & BUDDING an explosion of virions!!!!

Lysis ---(rupture, instant immune response)
Budding ----(pieces break off but not as violent of a response)  
Non-enveloped viruses use _________ causing _______ of the host cell.  
lysis; death (fast)  
Enveloped viruses use ________ which allows the host cell to ____.  
BUDDING!

live A LIE/ for a while (takes longer)  
How do viruses spread from cell to cell? Do they take the train? Get in tight with the Mafia? Yes.
TIGHT JUNCTIONS

Forming SYNCYTIA, a blood brotherhood which allows movement through the body w/o immune system detection (evasion!).  
Some viruses produce ___________ that confuse and distract host defenses. Others incorporate host proteins as a __________.  
decoy virions camouflage  
What are the most common plant pathogens? What causes human mycoses (2)?  
Fungi Fungal pathogens and opportunistic pathogens  
Where can a TRUE or PRIMARY FUNGAL pathogen invade and grow?  

Where does primary begin? On a clean, white slate...
A HEALTHY, uncompromised HOST  
What is a surprising fungal adaptation to survival?  
The ability to switch from HYPHAL cells to YEAST cells.  
What is the quality of THERMAL dimorphism of FUNGI?  
grows as MOLD at 30C
&
as YEAST at 37C  

(M'old at 30C!)
An opportunistic pathogen can only infect someone who has?  
Impaired defenses Vary from superficial colonization to potentially fatal systemic disease  
opportunistic FUNGAL INFECTIONS are a current medical concern in hospitals because>>> 
Account for 10% of all NOSOCOMIAL infections and DERMATOPHYTES may be undergoing transformation into true pathogens (smarter)  
What are the 4 most common opportunistic fungi?  
1. Candida 2. Aspergillus 3. Cryptococcus 4. Zygomycota species  
Most fungal pathogens do not require what and are not __________?  
A host to complete their life cycle; communicable  
True fungal pathogens are distributed in a predictable _________.  
Pattern - climate, soil  
Dermatophytes are the most prevalent _________ and cases can go un- or mis-diagnosed and can be what 4 types of infections?  
Mycotic pathogens; Systemic, subcutaneous, cutaneous or superficial infections  
What are 3 PORTALS of entry MYCOSES use?  

3 ways mycoses get close to me...
1. Primary mycoses - RESPIRATORY via INHALED spores
2. Subcutaneous - INNOCULATED skin via TRAUMA
3. CutaneouS and superficial - CONTAMINATION of SKIN surface  
MYCOSES CAN GET SO CLOSES virulence factors? (5)  

*Temperature sluts, Toxic parents, Caps & Claws, Waterbombs & Allergic!
thermal dimorphism (TEMPERATURE SLUTS), toxin production (TOXIC PARENTS), capsules and adhesion factors (CAPS & CLAWS), hydrolytic enzymes (WATERBOMBS), inflammatory stimulants (ALLERGIC!)
What ANTIFUNGAL defenses do humans have?  
The barriers and respiratory cilia.
Most important defenses are:
CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY
PHAGOCYTOSIS
INFLAMMATION.
*Long-term immunity can only develop for some.  
What must be done to diagnose mycotic infections?  
Microscopic examination of stained specimens, culturing in selective and enriched media and specific biochemical and serological tests  
Control of MYCOTIC infections?  
INTRAVENOUS AMPHITERICIN-B, flycytosine, azoles and nystatin. Surgical removal of damaged tissues. Prevention is limited to masks and protective clothing to reduce spore contact.  
What are 4 SYSTEMIC infections by TRUE pathogens?  

(Histoblastoparacoccicocci)
histo-blasto-paracocci-cocci:
1. HISTOplasma capsulatum
2. COCCIdioides immitis
3. BLASTOmyces dermatitidis
4. PARACOCCIdioides brasiliensis

*****All can and will kill you
What is the most common true pathogen, what does it cause and what are some of its features?  
Histoplasma capsulatum; causes histoplasmosis Dimorphic, distributed worldwide but most common in eastern and central U.S. Grows in moist soil high in N content. Can become systemic affecting multiple organs. Tx: Amphotericin B, ketoconazole  
Coccidioides immitis causes ___________, what is its distinctive morphology?  
coccidioidomycosis Blocklike arthroconidia in the free-living stage and spherules containing endospores in the lungs.  
Where does coccidioidomycosis live, what does it do and what is a treatment?  
Alkaline soils in semiarid, hot climates, is endemic to SW U.S. Arthrospores inhaled from dust, creates spherules and nodules in the lungs. Tx: amphotericin B  
What does blastomyces dermatitidis cause?  
Blastomycosis  
Blastomycosis species live where and what symptoms are there? Treatment?  
It is dimorphic. In soil of large section of the midwestern and southeastern U.S. Converts to yeasts which multiply in lungs, cough and fever result. If chronic, cutaneous, bone and nervous system complications result. Tx: Amphotericin B  
Where is paracoccidiomycosis distributed? What does it cause and what are treatments?  
Central and South America (toward equator). Lung infection occurs through inhalation or inoculation of spores. Tx: ketoconazole, amphotericin B, sulfa drugs  
What are 3 SUBCUTANEOUS mycoses?  

*look for MYCO or MYC in at least two of the types. The other is CUTANEOUS (hairlike). All are just under the skin.
1. LymphoCUTANEOUS sporotrichosis (bores into lymph nodes just under skin with hair-like 'trichosis')

2. ChromoblastoMYCOsis (colorful agents are spores, mycoses and saprobes - can see dark pathches under skin)

3. MYCetoma ( an 'oma' so tumor like rise from under skin)
LymphoCUTANEOUS Sporotrichosis
ROSE-GARDENER'S disease
Decomposing plant matter in SOIL
infects appendages and lungs and lymphocutaneous variety occurs when contaminated plant matter penetrates the skin and the pathogen forms a nodule which spreads to nearby lymph nodes.  
CHROMOblastomycosis appearance?
Etiological agents?
What does it produce?  
Highly visible COLORFUL lesions [CHROMOblastomycosis]

agents: SOIL SAPROBES, MYCELIA and SPORES
.
Produces: large, thick, YEASTlike bodies, sclerotic cells.  
What is mycetoma?  
SOIL MICROBES UNDER SKIN 
What does mycetoOMA cause?
What causes it?  
Progressive TUMOR(OMA)-ike disease of the HAND/FOOT due to CHRONIC FUNGAL infection; may lead to amputation to stop spread.
Caused by PSEUDALESCHERIA or MADURELLA.  
Inanimate object treatment
disinfection
human tissue treatment
Antisepsis
Technique that removes ALL microbes except *prions!
STERILIZATION!

(*prions are already denatured)
an environment or procedure free from contamination
A-septic
the use of chemical or physical agents to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganism (ie heat alcohol UV)
Disinfection
A chemical used on an inanimate object
disinfectant

*lysol
A chemical used on skin and tissue
Antiseptic

*hand sanitizer
removal of microbes from a surface by mechanical means
De-germing

*scouring
disinfection of places or things used by the public
Sanitization

*reduce # of pathogens to meet public health standards
the use of chemical or physical agents to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganism (ie heat alcohol UV)
Disinfection
A chemical used on an inanimate object
disinfectant

*lysol
A chemical used on SKIN and tissue
Antiseptic (GET IT? ANTI - SEPTIC?)

*hand sanitizer
removal of microbes from a surface by MECHANICAL means
De-germing

*scouring
disinfection of places or things used by the public
SANItization keeps the public SANE

*reduce # of pathogens to meet public health standards
Sanitation is NOT ___________, but the same techniques can be used.
sterilization
Sanitation techniques (NOT sterilization)
Steaming
High pressure
High temperature
Washing and Scrubbing
used to kill heat pathogens
Pasteurization

*does NOT sterilize, but IS used to reduced # of pathogens
*Reduces # of organisms that can spoil
an agent that inhibits growth
-STATIC

*meaning, not dead but ASLEEP (as in 'bacteriostatic')
an agent that kills
-cidal

*homicidal, fungicidal, germicidal
The most efficient way to kill an organism is to determine whether an organism can _____________.
reproduce
Best way to kill an organism is to take away its ability to ______________
reproduce

*accepted def. of microbial death
Factors affecting rate of microbial death in a clinical setting:
numbers
duration of exposure
temperature
environment
ENDOspore formation (dirt - buy sterilized bags of potting soil!)
Death rate: the greater the _________ of organisms, the longer it will take to kill so let the agent reach them alll!
numbers
EXPOSURE to a killing agent can depend on:
ACCESSIBILITY- type of microbe

(consider when applying radiation treatment)
Do you kill microbes faster with high or low temperatures?
higher and faster vs. (lower and slower)
Why dilute?
water allows the bleach/vinegar/etc. to be brought INTO the microbe cell.
What INHIBITS ANTIMICROBIAL agents from an organism?
ORGANIC materials

*blood, saliva, bodily fluids, fecal material
What kind of organisms are NOT susceptible to most chemical agents?

*what's hard to kill once we have it?
SPORE-forming

*Nocosomial!!!! infections
What may be the most important factor affecting microbial death rate (#, duration of exposure, temp., environment, endospore formation)?
ENDOspore formation - they are not susceptible to chemical agents and cause Nocosomial (hospital) infections!
3 Major Methods for controlling microbial growth?
1. Chemical
2. Physical
3. Mechanical removal
Factors to evaluate the potency of disinfectants and antiseptics...
Time
Temperature
Concentration
How to accelerate the death rate of microbes when using a chemical agent?
Increase the TEMP!

10*C increase 2x rate of chemical reaction
A change in pH can increase or decrease an agent's potency?
yes
For most chemical agents, increasing CONCENTRATION increases ________. What is the exception?
+CONCENTRATION =
+POTENCTY
*Alcohol is exception
ALCOHOL has to have a concentration lower than 70% to be effective. Meaning?
Alcohol is the exception - it is MORE POTENT WHEN DILUTED than when it is concentrated.
Alcohol must have ______ with it in order for it to be effective.
Water!

*increases penetration & denaturation of proteins
No good method for evaluating antimicrobial agent chemicals but, there are 3 fair methods:
D.P.D.::

DILUTION method
PHENOL co-efficient
DISK method
What method did we use in microbiology lab to compare efficacy of anti-microbial agents?
disk method

*filter paper soaked in agent on agar plate. Observe inhibition of growth a/r paper
AREA OF INHIBITION of growth around the anti-microbial agents we tested via disk method is called the______________.
zone of inhibition
What are some faults of the disk method we used to compare antimicrobial agents?
Zones of inhibition are NOT reflective of strength.

Concentration/diffusion rates may differ for each.

**Method CANNOT DISTINGUISH b/w microbicidal vs. microbistatic**
Is it reactive against ALL types of organisms without destroying tissue?
Is it effective in the presence of ORGANIC material (blood,etc)?
Is it STABLE?
Is it CHEAP?
Qualities of antimicrobial agents to consider when choosing one.
Chemicals used for DISINFECTION and ANTISEPTICS grouped into 3 types:
1. affecting PROTEINS
2. affecting MEMBRANES
3. affecting VIRUSES
LEAST harmful type of chemical for disinf/antisep. are those that affect _____
PROTEINS
*will cause a chemical burn
When we use disinfect/antisept chemicals that affect ________, we need ventilation!
membranes

(because we have them, too)
Why don't antimicrobial agents work against prions?
Because they are already denatured proteins
How are proteins denatured (what happens to them)?
Destroys their 3D shape conformation
When can proteins refold?
If the antimicrobial agent was mild and then was removed.
Must use in correct concentration to denature permanently.
How do chemical agents control VIRAL pathologies?
INACTIVATE their ability to infect or replicate

*Destroy the virus OR destroy the replication/gene expression
What kind of virion is affected by detergents, alcohols and other denaturing agents?
(WHAT IS WEAK?)
CAPSID proteins
What can effect/DESTROY a viral envelope, since they are not affected by denaturing?
agents that act on LIPIDS
Example of an alkylating agent that destroys replication (attacks the genome)

*Ethyl offered Gene an apple, then nitrous, until finally he was sterile.
Ethylene oxide (APPLES)
& Nitrous Acid

*both act as MUTAGENS for viral nucleic acid
Ethyl offered Gene an apple, then nitrous, until finally he was sterile.
How do you destroy replication and proliferation?
act as a mutagen for viral nucleic acid via the lipid membrane or denature the protein of capsids
Used more than physical means for antisepsis, disinfection and preservation.
CHEMical agents
What cell parts of a microbe do CHEMICAL agents affect?
Cell WALLS
Plasma MEMBRANES
PROTEINS
NUCLEIC ACIDS
Chemical agents are INEFFECTIVE against: (2)
protozoan CYSTS
&
bacterial ENDOSPORES
Phenolic compounds are derived from __________. Why use the phenolic compound instead?
PHENOL

because compounds have fewer side effects than phenol
Phenols and PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS are low - intermediate disinfectants/antiseptics that do 2 main things:
1. DENATURE proteins
2. DISRUPT the plasma membrane

*they also are very effective in presence of organic material (blood, etc.) and remain active for long time
Commonly used as disinfectants in health care settings and laboratories
Phenols and PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS
Alcohols are ___________-cidal, _________-cidal, and ________-cidal for enveloped viruses.
ALCOHOLS:
fungicidal
bacteriocidal
virucidal

*for enveloped viruses
Alcohols have NO EFFECT on (2):
a. fungal SPORES
b. bacterial ENDOSPORES

*they are fungicidal, bacteriocidal and viricidal but cannot kill any SPORES.
Alcohols don't affect
spores.
An intermediate level disinfectant often used as a carrier for other antimicrobial chemicals
.Alcohol

*TINCTURE
Just like phenols and phenolic compounds, alcohol _________ the plasma membrane and __________ proteins.
DISRUPTS & DENATURES

*alcohols, phenols/phenolic compounds
Routinely used as a DE-GERMING aid for pre-injection sites because it EVAPORATES.
alcohol
4 members of the HALOGEN family with chemical ANTIMICROBIAL activity:
1. Iodine
2. Chlorine
3. Bromine
4. Fluorine
What family of antimicrobial agents all end with '-ine' and name them (4)
HALOGENS: (all ending with '-ine'):
1. Iodine
2. Chlorine
3. Bromine
4. Fluorine
I. C.an B.rush w/ Fluori.de
Iodine/Chlorine/Bromine/Fluorine = the HALOGENS
HALOGENS effective against:

(pretty much everything. What are the big differences?)
BACTERIA
FUNGI
Fungal SPORES
SOME bacterial ENDOSPORES
Protozoan CYSTS
many VIRUSES

(spores, endospores and cysts being different)
Well-known HALOGEN antiseptic used medically as a TINCTURE or as an __________
IODINE

IODOPHOR = (longer lasting and non-irritating because no alcohol, unlike tincture of iodine)
Example of a halogen used antiseptically to prepare skin for surgery and to treat burns:
Betadine!

*an iodophor of the halogen iodine which is used instead of a tincture
Found in drinking water, swimming pools (traditionally) and waste-water, this HALOGEN is the major ingredient of BLEACH.
CHLORINE

*used to disinfect kidney DIALYSIS equipment
Betadine is an iodophor halogen iodine used to treat skin presurgically and for burns. ChlorAMINES are used medically to clean?
WOUND DRESSINGS
SKIN ANTISEPTICS
WATER SUPPLIES

*chloramines are LESS effective than chlorine but release their atoms more slowly so LAST LONGER than chlorine.
LESS effective than chlorine but release their atoms more slowly so LAST LONGER than chlorine.
chlorAMINES

*adding an amine to a halogen gas reduces potency as a killing agent but increases duration
HIGH-level disinfectants and antiseptics that prohibit bacterial METABOLISM:
OXIDIZING agents
What do Oxidizing agents release in order to kill ANAEROBIC organisms?
HYDROXYL RADICALS

(-OH)
Why can't oxidizing agents be used against aerobic organisms?
Because they would just latch onto the Oxygen

(whether or not this is true biochemically, just use the premise to remember -OH kills ANaerobics.
-oh, -oh, -oh, little anaerobic microbe! I'm so glad you don't like halogen gas, because it allows me to kick your tiny ass...What am I?
OXIDIZING AGENT

*Release Hydroxyl radicals which kill anaerobic organisms
What kind of infections do we use halogen Oxidizing agents on?
Deep tissue infections like
PUNCTURE WOUNDS
3 most commonly used halogen oxidizing agents:
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE
OZONE
PERACETIC ACID
"-OH, I put this on pears and hemostats to kill off the spores, Then I zap this one into water but it makes the city budget poor. When my daughter, she came home bleeding, the apple of my eye! I put this stuff in her deep stab wounds, and held her as she cried."
*Peracetic acid (peroxide form of acetic acid used for food + medical surfaces - ANTI SPORE)
*Ozone (used w/ electricity for city water treatment but expensive)
Why is Peracetic acid used to sterilize medical equipment and food processing equipment?
Peracetic acid, a halogen, is
NOT AFFECTED BY ORGANICS like blood, saliva, etc & leaves
NO TOXIC RESIDUE
SOAP & DETERGENTS are two common _____________.
surfactants
Why does soap work?
As a surfactant...one end of the soap molecule is hydrophilic/ionic, the other is hydrophobic/fatty acid. Fatty acid/hydrophobic end breaks oily deposits and allows washing away!
Soaps are good de-germing agents (because of surfactant quality) but bad __________ agents, because they have no inherent killing power.
antimicrobial

Soaps are de-germing ONLY - to make them antimicrobial, add TRICLOSAN
Positively-charged ORGANIC SURFACTANTS that are more soluble in WATER than soap is.
detergents

*quaternary ammonium compounds
{QUATS}
Most popular DETERGENT surfactants used in industrial and medical applications, including MOUTHWASH
QUATS

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Contain ammonium cations (+)

Low level disinfectant/antiseptics

Advantages?
QUATS:

odorless, tasteless, harmless to humans
works rapidly on mycobacteria and fungi such as the kind found in raw, unpasteurized milk. In mouthwash. Harmless, odorless, tasteless.
QUATS
How do QUATS work?
QUATS - DISRUPT the plasma membrane
QUATS disrupt the plasma membrane. This makes them 3 kinds of homicidal:
1. bacteriocidal
2. fungicidal
3. virucidal against ENVELOPED VIRUSES ONLY
QUATS are NOT useful for
NON-enveloped viruses
Mycobacteria
Bacterial ENDOSPORES

*and they are INHIBITED by ORGANIC contaminants
QUAT is your question, my child?
If QUATS are inhibited by organic contaminants, why are they used in mouthwash?
The ions of ___________ are INHERENTLY antimicrobial.
Heavy METALS
Name some heavy metals
arsenic
mercury
zinc
silver
copper
Mercury and silver used to be used medically. Mercury has been abandoned but silver is still used for:
Surgical dressing EYE
Burn creams
Catheters (bacteria cannot live in it)
Mechanism of HEAVY METALS
DE-NATURE proteins
Heavy metals are low -level ___________ agents; they are no good unless highly concentrated and even then, only STOP NOT KILL bacteria.
bacterioSTATIC
kills the bacterial that decompose
aldehydes
Used by RESEARCH LABS to kill bacteria, viruses, fungi.
2% GLUTAR-ALDEHYDE

10 minutes - disinfects most objects
10 HOURS - STERILIZES!

Al Hydes 2 Guitars in the research lab
Al Hydes 2 Guitars in the research lab
2% Glutaraldehyde is used by research labs to kill bacteria, viruses and fungi.

10 minutes - disinfects most objects
10 HOURS - STERILIZES!
Health care workers use a 37% solution of __________ to disinfect isolation rooms, exhausts, cabinets, surgical instruments and dialysis machines.
FORMALDEHYDE
Problem with formaldehyde (formalin)
irritant and carcinogen
Many items cannot be sterilized with heat or chemicals but they can be using highly reactive antimicrobial and sporicidal ___________
GASES
Highly reactive gas used in anthrax post office scare
Ethylene oxide

*propylene oxide & B-propiolactone are also used
Rapidly DIFFUSE into any space.
Over time, DENATURE proteins and DNA. They kill everything they come into contact with and cause no damage to inanimate objects.
GASES = kill but do not damage inanimate objects.

like Ethylene oxide, propylene oxide and B-propiolactone
MOST FREQUENTLY used gaseous agent
Ethylene oxide

*tattoo shops, dentists' offices, hospitals - sterilizing!
Is a gas like ethylene oxide a sterilizing agent or static agent?
Sterilizing. Gas kills everything it comes into contact with, but does not damage inanimate objects.
Disadvantages to gases:

(think of everyone you've ever dated)
EXPLOSIVE
POISONOUS
CARCINOGENIC
SLOW
HIGH-MAINTENANCE
Instead of chemical or gaseous agents, we can use _________ agents to control microbial growth.
physical

*drying, heating, cold, filtration, osmotic pressure, radiation
Heat is usually lethal to most pathogenic microbes. 2 types and which works best?
1. MOIST HEAT - the best!!!! hot water, boiling water or steam

2. DRY heat - from hot air with low moisture, ovens
Dry heat does NOT work well on viruses. Why?
Capsule & DNA of virion are protein. There is no water present in dry heat to enter the capsule/DNA of virion and denature it.
Dry heat from ovens is used for glass, metal, powders and oils. What does it kill?
Temps between 150-180*C

SPORES, VEGETATIVE CELLS
*high and dry makes ash outta microbes.
Why does dry heat kill microbial cells? Why doesn't it kill viruses?
DEHYDRATES microbial cells because it CAN ENTER microbe and halt reproduction, causing death...

CANNOT enter a VIRUS CAPSULE. NEED WATER!!
TDT
Thermal Death Time

*shortest length of time needed to kill ALL organisms at a specific temp.
TDP

You have _____ minutes before time's up.
Thermal Death POINT = 10 min!

*the LOWEST temperature needed to kill organisms in TEN FREAKING MINUTES!
The ________ is the last 10 minutes of a test before you have to hand it in.
Thermal Death Point

*the lowest temperature needed to kill organisms in 10 minutes
3 ways of using MOIST HEAT
PRESSURIZED STEAM

BOILING

PASTEURIZATION
The type of moist heat that gives the HIGHEST TEMPERATURE and therefore increased PRESSURE.
pressurized steam

*AUTOCLAVE - steam condenses to water on the instruments, raises the temperature of the steel or heat-resistant material.
When is pressurized steam NOT useful?
On materials that REPEL water

*water repellent surfaces don't allow the uber-hot liquid to penetrate and kill heat resistant cells
Besides water repellent surfaces that are unaffected by pressurized steam, what other heat technique is NOT effective against heat resistant cells?
BOILING:

IS effective for disinfection
NOT effective for sterilization
Boiling does NOT kill
_______-forming pathogens.
SPORE-forming pathogens are not killed by boiling.

It takes 30 min. for boiling to kill most NON-SPORE FORMING pathogens
Process used to preserve flavor and nutritive value of food.
Pasteurization

*DOES destroy pathogens and reduces microbial load.

*does NOT sterilize>>>>>>
What is better, the flash method or batch method of sterilization?
FLASH!

71.6*C for 15 seconds
The yellowish colored milk sold at Wal-Mart is pasteurized how?
Batch (sucks) - cows' milk from all over dumped together and heated to 63-66*C for 30 min.

vs. Flash = 71.6*C for 15 SECOND
We know that pasteurization does not kill a few things because after a few days, the milk still goes bad and we could never make yogurt.

PASTEURIZATION does NOT kill:
ENDOspores
NON-PATHENOGENIC lactobacilli
microCOCCI
YEASTS

(endolactomicroyeast)
endolactomicroyeast
endospore
non-patho lactobacilli
micrococci
yeast

*what pasteurization does NOT kill
Freezing and refrigeration does NOT (2)?
does not kill, does not sterilize
COLD does not kill or sterilize. It does:
RETARD growth
DELAYS spoilage

*slows enzymatic reactions

Cold:SlowDelayedRetard
Freezing, not just refrigeration, does actually slow metabolic rate so there is no growth or spoilage. This is a _________
static.
Can be used to preserve microorganisms
Freezing

*glycerol, prevents formation of ICE crystals
LYOphilization
FREEZE-DRYING =
long term storage

*removes water, uses liquid Nitrogen, just add water!
passing liquid through a membrane
LIQUID Filtration

STERILE because pores in filter too small for microbes to pass
Used to sample and test WATER, a liquid, for fecal coliform contamination.
LIQUID Filtration

*growth media, drugs, vitamins, some commercial food preparation
purifies air via HEPA filters
AIR filtration

HEPA = High Efficiency Particulate Air
The CDC uses these kind of filters soaked in formalin to keep bugs from escaping while operating rooms, burn units and clean rooms of labs use them to keep bugs OUT!
HEPA air filters
High concentrations of SALT or SUGAR, etc. are used in food preparation via _______________.
OSMOTIC PRESSURE
3 characteristics of Osmotic Pressure
1. HYPERTONIC medium
2. DRAWS WATER from organism
3. PLASMOLYSIS & DEATH

Draws the life outta something by getting water to follow the rock stars.
High velocity atomic energy which cells absorb. .
Radiation changes DNA structure.

(*Atomic - thanks, Blondie)
2 types of RADIATION
IONIZING = ejects electrons (DNA mutations occur)

NON-ionizing = excites atoms but doesn't make them eject electrons
Ionizing radiation includes what kind of rays?
Gamma, X-rays, high speed e- beams
Which type of radiation changes/mutates DNA?
IONIZING is strong - breaks down chromosomes
SAFE RADIATION for killing because it changes bonding capabilities and the pathogen falls apart.
NON-Ionizing such as ULTRAVIOLET
All ionizing (strong) radiation can penetrate liquids and most solid materials. Most penetrating?
GAMMA

*used on flour, meat, fruit, veggies to kill microorganisms, parasites and insects.
What kind of radiation is being used to sterilize medical products?
IONIZATION

drugs/vaccines/plastics/syringes/gloves/tissue for grafting/heart valves
Main drawback of IONIZING radiation
danger to operator
How does UV (non-ionizing radiation) disrupt cells?
FREE RADICALS

kills: Fungal cells, Spores, Bacterial cells, Protozoans, Viruses
UV radiation does not kill bacterial endospores or protozoan cysts. Since it doesn't kill everything, this means it is used for ________ but not __________.
UV = DISINFECTION not sterilization
What type of bright light treatment can be effective at reducing POST-OPERATIVE infection?
BLUE ROOMS:
UV radiation prevents droplet transmission

UV radiation curtails food micros

UV radiation inhibits growth of micros in water, vaccines, drugs, plasmas, grafts and transplants
Major disadvantages to UV (non-ionizing) radiation:
Poor penetration
Damaged tissue after long exposure
<<<///Retinal damage////>>>
Cancer
Wrinkles
One of the most important historical discoveries in medicine - this simple act can inhibit the spread of pathogens.
HAND WASHING
What makes hand washing effective:
TIME spent
TYPE of soap
Hospitals use ___________ soaps because they are very effective at preventing pathogen transmission.
BACTERIOCIDAL SOAP
Describe OHIO Valley Fever {Histoplasmosis}
Typical dimorphic
BONE INFECTION is frequent
most common TRUE PATHOGEN
EAST OF MISSISSIPPI
soil high in Nitrogen content
AMPHOTERICIN-B
Describe VALLEY fever
{CocciDioidMycosis}

**think of Dave in Az.
Caught'cha Dyin' out WEST takin' AMPHOTERICIN-B
Distinctive BLOCKLIKE
ENDOSPORES in lungs
live in ALKALINE soil in SW USA
ARTHROSPORES inhaled
SPHERULES & NODULES=LUNG
Most common East of Mississippi
(farmland-rural)
Nitrogen added to soil
Pulmonary>rupture>>systemic>>>organ, liver, kidney>>>>>BONE
histoplasmosis/OHIO Valley Fever

****MOST COMMON TRUE PATHOGEN
Lung disease
Semi-arid Hot climates
Southwest Desert
BONE
Caught'cha Dyin' in the Desert takin' Amphotericin-B
CocciDioidoMycosis/VALLEY fever
Describe NORTH AMERICAN BLASTOMYCOSIS {blastomyces dermatitdis}
HUNTER'S BLAST (caught from leaf litter fungus while lying in wait)
Dimorphic
SOIL of Southeast and Midwest
BONE
Inhaled 10-100 CONDIDIA converts to YEAST in LUNGS
AMPHOTERICIN-B
HUNTER'S BLAST! (hunter's get this because they lie in wait in leaf litter - pick up the fungal spores)
Inhaled CONIDIA and also under SKIN
Huntin' in the Midwest and Southeast
Blastomyces Dermatitdes:
causing
NORTH AMERICAN BLASTOMYCOSIS

(HUNTER'S BLAST!)
para-cocci-dioido-mycosis
brasiliensis
COSTA RICA paracoccidioidomycosis brasiliensis
Wimpy, uncommon disease
INHALED
KETOCONAZOLE, AMPHOTERICIN-B, SULFAS
You will see these in practice - skin mycoses
SUBCUTANEOUS MYCOSES
1. Lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis
2. Chromoblastomycosis
3. Mycetoma
SPOROTHRIX SCHENKII

Sporotrichosis! oh my!
~Rose-Gardener's disease
~SAPROBE FUNGUS found in decomposing plant soil
~APPENDAGES & LUNGS
~nodule formed due to skin contamination, moves to LYMPH
(Lymphocutaneous)
MYCOSIS=
MYCOSIS = FUNGAL
Chromo means color. What is CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS
A colored fungus (mycosis) of highly visible VERRUCOUS (pus+fungus) lesions.

Agents:
SAPROBES/MYCELIA/SPORES

Produces large, YEASTlike bodies
Rose-Gardener's disease
Sporothrix Schenckii

SPOROTRICHOSIS common SAPROBE in decomposing plant soil affects APPENDAGES/LUNGS and LYMPH when subcutaneous spread
Mycet-oma

(you know it's a fungus/myco and it's an -oma/tumor)
When soil microbes are accidentally IMPLANTED into the skin.
Progressive, TUMOR-like disease of HAND OR FOOT due to chronic FUNGAL infection (amputation)
Cutaneous MYCOSES
Athlete's Foot
DERMATOPHYTOSES: tinea, ringworm
KERATIN-eating species
SKIN, HAIR, NAILS
Ring-worm causative agent varies from
case to case

(ringworm is a cutaneous mycosis - a
DERMATOPHYTOSES)
most common presenting fungus found in humans
ATHLETE'S FOOT (TINEA)

a dermatophytosis/cutaneous mycosis

*wrestlers and gymnasts
Fungus in animals
MANGE
Ringworm in humans is most facilitated by the presence of moist, _________ skin.
chafed
Long infection period followed by localized inflammation and allergic reactions to fungal proteins.
Ringworm (tinea)
tinea CAPITIS
ringworm of SCALP and hair-bearing regions of head

hair loss
bat or bird dropping soil. Temperate/subtropical. 50-90% of those residents test +. TRUE PATHOGEN. Inhalation of CONIDIA. Asymptomatic
HISTOplasmosis
spontaneous resolution but this one true pathogen may cause chills, malaise, chest pain and extensive pulmonary infiltration
HISTOplasmosis
symptoms or asymptomatic, but restricted to SW US areas. More than 1/2 individuals show no sign of infection. If symps, it's malaise, cough, fever, chest pain.
VALLEY fever
Coccidioidomycosis
Can cause a fatal form of coccidioidal meningitis
VALLEY fever
Coccidioidomycosis
Fungi of respiratory system but can spread via blood. Men 20-40 mostly. NOT increased in AIDS. Fever chills drenching sweats. Skin BONES, genitourinary.
BLASTOmycosis
most common presenting fungus in humans
Athlete's foot

wrestler's and gymnasts
fungus in animals
mange
Tinea:
captitis
barbae
corporis
cruris
pedis and manuum
unguium
tinea: RINGWORM
capitis - scalp
barbae - beard
corporis - body
cruris - groin (jock itch)
pedis & manuum - hand/foot
unguium - nails
How long is Lamisil or grisofulvin treatment for tinea?
1-2 years
caused by Malassezia furfur - mild to chronic scaling. Associated with psoriasis, folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis
Tinea VERSICOLOR

*furfur
Rhizopus
bread mold
Account for 80% of nosocomial fungal infections and 30% of deaths from nosocomial infections, althougth part of normal flora of oral, genital, lg intestine and skin of 20% of humans
C A N D I D A !

*candida albicans
thick white adherent growth on the mouth/oral cavity of humans
thrush

(a form of candida albicans)
occurs in chronically moist areas of skin and in burn patients
cutaneous candidiasis
Topical antifungals for superficial infections, amphotericin B and Fluconazole for systemics
candida albicans
Pigeon roost soil. Common infection for AIDS< cancer < diabetes patients. Lung NODULES. Dissemination to brain = neuro and death.
CRYPTOcoccosis

This stuff will put you in a an EARLY CRYPT w/ pigeons
The most prominent opportunistic infection in AIDS patients
PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA
~a unicellular fungus that causes pneumonia (PCP)
tHIS PNEUMONIA FORMS SECRETIONS IN THE LUNGS
pneumocystis pneumonia

(lung fungus causes pneum)
Very common airborne soil fungus of SPORE germination in lungs and form FUNGAL BALLS
ASPERGILLOSIS

*fungal balls that hit sinuses, conjunctiva, ears, eyes, necrotic pneumonia, brain, heart
FUNGAL BALLS of
aspergillosis
Extremely abundant RHIZOPUS and MUCOR of swimming pools, Jacuzzis and lakes.
ZYGOmycosis

(jacuzzi fungus that gets up in your zygo)
mold found in soil, dairy products. Primarily involved in 2nd lung infections
GEOtrichum candidum

*opportunist
soil; occasionally affects eyes, burned skin, TOENAILS
FUSARium species
mycotoxicoses
hallucinogenic mushroom fungal toxin
PEANUTS and grains, corn, lethal to poultry and livestock. Carcinogenic.
AFLATOXIN
Stachybotrys chartarum
sick building syndrome
2 groups of parasites
Protozoans (single celled eukaryotes)
&
Helminths (worms)
Most problematic, widespread parasitic infection (500 mil. people)
MALARIA

*2 mil. children die each yr
intestinal parasites that infect 10% of the world's population
Entamoeba

Montezuma's revenge
Latin American parasites 16 million people each year
Trypansoma

lives in face, slowly dissolves face away
How are parasitic protozoans classified?
by how they move

ie, flagellates cause most disease in humans
TYpe of parasitic protozoan that causes the most disease in humans
Flagellates
Rhizopods move via
pseudopods
Ciliates move via
cilia
Flagellates move via
flagella
sporozoans move via
nothing.

They are the only ones that don't use binary fission
2 types of Helminths
Free living
and
Parasitic
(like adult children)
Helminths are ______ symmetrical and various lengths. They are free living or _____.
bilaterally symmetrical

free living or parasitic
Body of helminth
covered by tought cuticle

have hooks, suckers, plates for attachment
3 types of Helminths that infect humans
1.Nematodes (roundworms)
2. Cestodes (tapeworms)
3. Trematodes (flukes)
most evolutionarily advanced of all parasites
Helminths (worms)

*GI form: Need ONE host to complete life cycle
*Blood & Tissue form: need MULTIPLE hosts
hermaphroditic peice of tapeworm - reproductive segments with male and female parts
PROGLOTTIDS
Helminths have no digestive tract -they absorb nutrients across their
cuticle
scolex
hooks in a CESTODE (tapeworm) mouth
Which worm makes proglottids
tapeworms/cestodes
Most evolutionarily advanced Helminth
Nematodes! (roundworms)
GI use one host
Blood and tissue use many
Helminth with one entrance for food and feces
Trematodes (flukes)
with 2 SUCKERS
Definitive host vs. Intermediate host
definitive = home for SEX

intermediate = Asexual
reproduction (mosquito, snail)
I would definately rather have sex at home.
Definitive host - where sexual reproduction occurs at home
Regarding worm prognosis
it all depends on how MANY you get
Worm notwithstanding, what can your own body, the host, do to itself while reacting to worms?
Tissue damage (localized ulcerations of hookworms)

Allergic/anaphylactic reactions (IgE & Eosinophil)
Intracellular parasites that cause MALARIA, TOXOPLASMOSIS
SPOROZOANS
what causes malaria and toxoplaxmosis
sporozoans
sporozoans cause
malaria and toxoplasmosis
Together, these two sporozoans affect 1/3 of the world
malaria and toxoplasmosis
Malaria from sporozoan
Undulating fever
Anopheles mosquito
Mortality children and immunocompromised adult
mosquito that spreads malaria
Anopheles

*the only species with a sucessful tranmission rate to humans
FEVER
ANEMIA
CIRCULATORY changes (RBC damage clots capillaries)
Malaria from sporozoans in
Anopheles mosquito
thrombocytopenia is common with this disease
malaria
Clinical manifestations depend on species of plasmodium. Must treat within 2 weeks.
Malaria

Malarial paroxysm of cold then hot stage
Most deadly form of malaria involves the
CNS

cerebral malaria and delusions, paralysis,coma,death
What can you catch from your garden if you have neighborhood cats?
toxoplasmosis!

oocysts in feces

(and from ferrets)
Montezuma's revenge, Traveler's trots, New Dehli belly
Amebiasis
(Entamoeba histolytica)
Amebiasis is an obligate intracellular parasite, meaning
it is passed from host to host as CYSTS (dissolve in stomach acid) via fecal oral route
Third highes parasitic cause of death worldwide
Amebiasis (entamoeba)
Spontaneous unremitting diarrhea, flatulence, cramping, abdominal pain
Amebiasis

(take Flagyl)
most virulent amebiasis
Fulminating amoebic dysentery degloves the intestinal tract
Flagellates multiply via
binary fission
Name the 4 flagellates that cause human disease
Trichomonas
Giardia (Vermont!)
Leishmania
Trypanosoma
Of all the Flagellates, which is frequently lethal?
Trypanosoma
Sexually transmitted flagellate. Symptoms of pain, dysuria, discharge.
Trichomoniasis vaginalis
Sleeping Sickness (African) and Chagas (American) spread by tsetse fly
Trypanosomiasis

most lethal
Hemorrhaging, demyelinating panencephalitis, headache, feer, lymphadenopathy, skin rash, impaired mental stats
TRYPANOSOMIALSIS
('som' as in somnolent)
Sleeping Sickness-Africa
Chagas Disease - America
3 types of parasitic helminths
Nematodes
Cestodes
Trematodes
2 types of Nematodes/roundworms
GI
blood and tissue
fusiform body with tough outer cuticle this worm makes thousands of offspring. Eggs have to incubate outside (be shitout)
Intestinal type Nematodes (roundworms of the GI)
pinworms
whipworms
large round worms
intestinal nematodes
malnutrition discomfort ANEMIA occasional death
intestinal nematodes
Severity of intestinal nematode disease is directly related to
worm load

small-no symptoms
large-serious
Children get this nematode
pinworms of GI
Enterobiasis
Attach to mucosa of cecum and larvae migrate down to cecum after females lay eggs in perianal region
pinworms
largest and most common intestinal nematode
ascariasis
soil airborne
small children who defecate indiscriminately
ascariasis
most common and largest intestinal nematode
small intestine then invade liver, exit hepatic vein and enter heart, progress to lung, rupture alveolar spaces, coughed up, swallowed.
Ascariasis (fever, coughing, WHEEZING, shortness of breath)

largest most commn intestinal nematode
can induce disease in tissues, blood, lymph. Four major types of these nematodes use humans as definitive (home for sex) hosts
Tissue nematodes

can live for years in lymph nodes and subcutaneous
Tissue nematodes have offspring called
MICROFILARIAE
Lives in the duodenum and jejunum of flexh eating mammals - particularly PIGS and bears
TRICHINOSIS

Undercooked meat
The only parasites that penetrate the SKELETAL MUSCLE survive
trichinosis

Undercooked meat
undercooked meat
trichinosis
Largest of intestinal parasites
tapeworms/cestodes
Largest of intestinal parasites with 3 section body (head, regenerative neck, segmented body)
Tapeworm/cestode

Head may have ROSTELLUM
Proglottid segments of cestodes/tapeworms contain an ___________ so that intermediate reproduction may occur.
hermaphrodite
Tapeworm stays int he lumen of the gut of the ________ host.
primary

few symptoms
Tapeworm moves from primary host's gut lumen to ________ host where larval stages cause invasive tissue damage
intermediate

(for asexual reproduction via proglottid segments)
Can live for decades in human tissue and blood vessels while producing progressive damage to vital organs
Trematodes/FLUKES

It was a liver fluke
Disease causing trematodes/flukes:
HHermaphrodites
Schistosomes
3 major groups of trematodes invading humans:
liver flukes
lung flukes
blood flukes
PARAGONimiasis
LUNG fluke is a Paragon of all flukes - causes more than 5 mil. infections worldwide by consuming SHELLFISH
Adult flukes in intestine cause
pain, bloody diarrhea
Adult flukes in CNS cause
epilepsy
paralysis
CLONORCHIASIS
LIVER fluke

fibrosis in the bile duct
Not only can it survive up to 50 years in human, ______ flukes (clonorchiasis) also found in cats, dogs, rats, pigs.
liver
Schisto somiasis
blood fluke
Up to one million of the 2-300000 die each year of the 5 species of fluke that infect humans.
Schistosomiasis
BLOOD fluke
Cylindrical body (where are they going? into tubes) that mate in the portal vein and are cojoined for life (aww...)
Schistosomiasis
BLOOD fluke
suckers hang on to mesenteric vessels and lay eggs in submucosal veins of ascending colon
Among other things, this fluke can cause bladder infection leading to RENAL failure
Schistosomiasis
BLOOD fluke