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20 Cards in this Set

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Brooklyn Daily Eagle
– Began in 1841, as an organ of the Democratic Party. Edited by Walt Whitman for two years, who argued that partisanship should not interfere with the scope and reach of the newspaper. By the civil war, it was the most widely read afternoon newspaper in the US. It won many Pulitzer prizes, though after declining circulation, stopped publishing in 1955.
Civil Service Reform Association
– First CSRA made in New York in 1877, these government institutions allowed for the assignment of civil sector responsiblities and made civil service reform permanent through legislation. CSRA were initially made possible larger through the efforts of Rutherford B. Hayes, who depoliticized NY city institutions like the customhouse and the post office. The CSRA made these reforms permanent. Later, CSRA served to make good management and financial choices for the city.
Coney Island
– Neighborhood in southwest Brooklyn, named by the Dutch. After the civil war, railroads were built to Brooklyn and Coney Island grew as a resort. Racetracks, boxing matches, gambling dens, brothels and dance halls started to flourish in the late 19th, early 20th century. Early 20th century, three amusement parks opened, including the infamous Luna Park. The parks charge admission, banned alcohol and offered mechanical rides. These parks became extremely popular. Robert Moses, who opposed commercial amusements, dramatically changed the look of Coney island between 1934 to 1960
Consolidation of 1898
– The assignment of NYC's current borders (brought in Brooklyn, Queens, etc). It was established through a vote and a governor approval. Many residents in Brooklyn were originally against it, fearing they would be taxed from abroad, thus losing local control. It passed regardless. This made New York the most extensive and populous city in the United States. City now had jurisdiction over all areas of greater New York.
Containerization
– Containerization is the use of containers for cargo transport. 1930 to 1950 was the rise of containerization. It had drastic implications for NYC. Firstly, it allowed for the expansion of residential suburbanization, as product and supplies could be easily moved. Perhaps most importantly, containerization allowed for the continued boom of the NY harbor, and revolutionized the technology of freight handling
Core Stall-In
– CORE, or the Congress for Racial Equality, was a group dedicated to the civil rights movement and racial equality. In 1964, the Brooklyn division of CORE abandoned non-direct, non-violent methods of action and instead planned for a "stall-in" of the 1964 World's Fair, where traffic to the world's fair was blocked in an attempt to force systemic change to alleviate racism, specifically in employment. The cars would simply "run out of gas" on the highway, or "stall", and would block traffic. This signaled not just a change in the trend of the civil rights movement, but also sparked national controversy.
Diedrich Knickerbocker
– The fictitious author of Washington Irving's novel Knickbocker's History of New York (1809). Knickbocker refers to descendants of the original Dutch settlers of New York. Diedrich, the son of immigrants, is an opportunist and a fiercely proud American
Jones Beach
– Jones Beach commonly refers to a string of beaches dotting Jones Beach State Park, a barrier island in Long Island. The beach faces the open Atlantic Ocean and has the Jones Beach Theatre near buy, where many bands play. It was created by Robert Moses in 1929, marked by the famous Jones Beach Water tower.
Joseph Mitchell
– Served on staff of New Yorker from 1938 to 1996. A plainspoken writer, he often wrote about interesting characters in New York. Mitchell was most famous for his expose on Joe Gould, a Greenwich Village derelict. Gould had written "An Oral History of Our Times" and Mitchell proved it to be a sham. However, after his piece on Gould, Mitchell developed writer's block and never wrote another article again.
Shelley v. Kramer
– Supreme court decision in 1948 that racially restrictive covenants, a loophole to the now outlawed racial zoning, aren't legally enforceable. Racial covenants restricted property and land deeds sales (to who they could be sold to, as defined by race)
Lillian Edelstein
Energetic housewife who took against Robert Moses when he tried to build his Bronx River Parkway through East Tremont in 1952.
Mary White Ovington
Writer, social worker and civil rights activist. Born in Brooklyn, 1865. Became registrar at Pratt in 1893, and head social worker at Greenpoint Settlement. She helped form the NAACP 1909 and generally advocated racial rights till she died in 1951.
"New Law" tenement
– Refers to the Tenement House Act of 1901, which outlawed the construction of tenements on 25 foot-wide-lots, required improved sanitary arrangements and access to light (many apartments were faced inwards and therefore had little or no natural light). While these revisions mainly applied to newly constructed tenements, some of its laws applied to required renovations to "pre-law tenements".
Parkways
– 1928 started the beginning of the parkway building era in New York., though the first major parkway was the Bronx River Parkway which finished in 1924 and became a basis for landscape parkways in the New York area. Most of these parkways were built by Robert Moses. Parkways are generally closed to trucks, commercial traffic and advertising billboards (limited-access). They are often divided by strips of landscaped (grass, trees, etc) and are unique to New York. The best known parkways are Grand Central, Henry Hudson, and Hutchinson River.
Dongan's Charter
– Referring to the charter drafted by Colonel Dongan. Dongan in 1683 established the first representative assembly of the province, organized the colony into counties, and established civil framework of NYC. This included a governor, governor's council, assembly, basic rights (trial by jury, no taxation without representation) and religious liberty.
Draft Riots
– In 1863, in response to Abraham Lincoln's entering into the civil war, and the enactment of the draft lottery, many of those who were drafted (primarily Irish-Americans) rioted and attacked what they believed to be a "nigger war" and overturned and burned drafting and military centers. Black men, women and children were attacked. The union's army entered New York and put an end to the riots.
Dumbbell tenement
– Tenement laws of 1879, created dumbbell shaped buildings that indentations of air shaft in the middle of the building.the law of 1879 required that buildings that were to be built must include access to fresh air in all of their rooms. did not affect preexisting tenements. modifications to old tenements was required after the tenement hous act of 1901.
Pete Hamill
– Columnist at the New York Post. He started his career at the post in 1960, becoming a columnist in 1965. In the 1970s, he worked at the Daily News for 3 years. He is best known for his coverage of the domestic disturbances of New York, the civil rights and the anti-war movement in New York, mostly in the 1960s. He lives in Manhattan with his family.
Port of New York Authority
– Formed in 1921 in conjunction of Port Authority of NJ, in a joint move by NY and NJ. Originally made to improve terminals in the port and help transportation. The Port Authority stands as a testament to cooperation between two states. The PA can issue bonds and charge fees for the use of its facilities. Pressured in the late 1920s and early 1930s, the PA built bridges between NJ and Staten Island, and the George Washington bridge, both which were established early and within their budgets. The PA was known for its political independence and efficiency and therefore took over the Holland Tunnel and created the Holland Tunnel. Austin J. Tobin headed the PA in the 1940s and formed political coalitions that allowed it to take over Newark, JFK and LFA airports, built the PA bus terminal and expand the Lincoln Tunnel. The PA cooperated with Robert Moses in the 1950s, leading to the construction of the Verrazano Bridge, the Throgs Neck Bridge and the George Washington Bridge. Tobin's leadership was criticized by the decline of the rail facilities and the refusal to channel revenues from the bridges. Tobin proposed the authority take over the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad, which it did, and PATH was born. The Port Authority today exists as the most complicated and comprehensive institution of its kind.
Redlining
– Began with the Housing Act of 1934, which established the Federal Housing Authority (FHA) to improve housing conditions and standards, and later led to the formation of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). While it was designed to develop housing for poor residents of urban areas, that act also required cities to target specific areas and neighborhoods for different racial groups, and certain areas of cities were not eligible to receive loans at all. This meant that ethnic minorities could only secure mortgages in certain areas, and it resulted in a large increase in the residential racial segregation on the United States