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46 Cards in this Set

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A, G, C, T
Abbreviations for the 4 molecular bases that make up the coding section of DNA. In the double stranded form of DNA: -A- always matches with -T- and -C- always matches with -G-.
One of the possible variations that can exist in a gene for a single trait. For example in pea plants we might find an allele for green seeds and an allele for yellow seeds. The trait is seed color, the alleles are green or yellow. One allele may be dominant, the other may be recessive. Other possibilities exist.
Altered gene
A section of DNA that codes for a particular protein that has been changed in some way. A mutation.
Base, molecular (DNA)
One of the components of a DNA or RNA molecule that makes up the genetic code. There are 4 different ones in DNA (ATCG) and an alternate one in RNA (AUCG).
Biotechnological methods
Usually refers to techniques for modifying or manipulating living things in order to get desirable traits or products. Selective breeding, gene splicing, and cloning are examples.
Body cells
All the cells that make up an organism EXCEPT for the sex cells themselves. With some exceptions, body cells that have DNA are genetically identical to each other. In contrast, each sex cell is unique.
Coded instructions
Generally, the information found in DNA that determines how a protein is to be made.
Combination of genes
In sexual reproduction, the offspring receive a mixture of genetic information from both parents, making them genetically different from either parent. This sometimes results in traits not found in either parent (see recombination).
Combinations of traits
The exact forms of different characteristics that an individual inherits (see recombination).
The process or state of keeping something going or alive. Reproduction assure this in a species or population.
An uninterrupted sequence. See continuation for related term.
Deleting DNA segment
An often catastrophic type of mutation in which one or more bases is removed from a piece of DNA, altering the coded message at all points after the removal.
adjective. Refers to a message written in code form. (DNA, e.g.)
Refers to the observable effects of a particular genetic code. It is a result of the genetic code itself as well as the environment of the cell or organism.
Gel Electrophoresis
A method of analyzing DNA (and other compounds) from different sources to look for similarities. DNA is first cut into segments by enzymes, placed in a gelatin plate and subjected to electrical current, which then separates the pieces by size. They are then stained, and viewed for banding patterns. More closely related individuals or species will have more similar banding patterns (see image card).
In modern genetics, a section of DNA that codes for a specific protein. Also used to refer to a code for a particular "trait" such as tall plants or short plants, green peas or yellow peas, etc.
Gene mutation
Any change in the sequence of base pairs found on a DNA molecule. Can occur from inserting an extra base, deleting a base, or substituting one base for another. When these occur in sex cells, the changed DNA can be passed on to offspring. It is the source of genetic variation in living things.
The period of time, different for each species, required for the offspring of a population to progress to the adult (reproductive) stage.
adjective. Referring to genes, DNA, etc. (See other cards for specific usage.)
Genetic engineering
A method of changing DNA in an organism to achieve some desired effect. Generally involves the insertion of segments of DNA from one individual or species into another individual or species. Desired effects include disease treatment (humans, still experimental), disease resistance (in plants, domesticated animals, etc.), and others, and the insertion of human genes into bacteria to produce some human product such as insulin.
Genetic information
The code found in DNA. The "blueprint" for producing an individual organism. Can also refer to RNA, chromosomes.
Genetic makeup
The precise information found on the DNA of an individual or population.
Genetic manipulation
The changing of DNA in an individual. Involves inserting or deleting segments of DNA.
Genetic variability
The different kinds of genetic information found in a particular group - family, population, species, etc.
A trait that can be passed from parent to offspring through DNA.
The study of how traits are passed from parent to offspring.
verb. To acquire a genetic trait (disease, hair color, eye color, etc.) from a parent or parents.
Inheritable characteristic
A trait that can be passed from parent to offspring through DNA. Includes obvious examples (disease, hair color, eye color, etc.) as well as more subtle differences in internal structures and metabolic chemicals (enzymes).
noun. The act of inheriting something (a genetic trait).
Referring to traits that are acquired by offspring from parents through DNA.
Inserting DNA segment
Changing the DNA of an individual by adding a one or more bases or entire sections of DNA. Can refer to a kind of mutation (usually a single base) or genetic engineering (usually an entire gene).
Manipulation of genes
Changing the genetic code of an individual by adding or deleting segments of the DNA.
Molecular bases (DNA)
Abbreviated A,T,C,G. These are the 4 components of DNA that actually make up the coded part of DNA.
Molecular basis of heredity
The idea that traits are passed from parents to offspring through genes contained in DNA molecules.
ANY unintended change in the DNA of an organism. Can be positive, negative, or neutral in terms of its effect on the individual.
Physical traits
The observable characteristics or features of an organism excluding behavior, emotions, etc. Includes the chemical make-up, the cellular characteristics, and the presence and arrangement of different body parts (internal and external internal limbs, organs, tissues, etc.
Protein building
The linking of amino acids into a chain. Instructions for it are coded in DNA. The process itself happens at ribosomes in the cytoplasm of a cell.
Energy that travels in the form of waves. For example, light as we know it, and heat. In terms of genetics, high energy waves (X-rays, ultra violet rays, etc.) are known to cause mutations in DNA leading to cancers and other problems.
The shuffling of parental genes during meiosis and fertilization, which leads to traits or combinations of traits found in neither parent. Example: father has black hair and brown eyes. Mother has blond hair and brown eyes. Offspring has brown hair and blue eyes. Review dominant/recessive inheritance.
To make an exact copy of DNA. (Also what viruses do, after infecting a host cell - make a copy of the virus).
The act of replicating. Making a copy if DNA, virus, etc.
Segment of DNA
A section of the genetic code of an individual. A chromosome, a gene, a single base, etc.
Substituting DNA segment
Generally, a type of mutation in which one base is switched (accidentally) with another base. Of the three types of mutations, this one is least likely to cause a problem.
A model, pattern, mold, or impression of a structure that can be used to make copies of that structure. Example: One strand of a DNA molecule is the "pattern" for building the other strand.
A characteristic or feature of an organism. Can be inherited or acquired.
In agriculture, the many different types of a specific plant, such as corn, that exist. Some of these types are particularly good for one use (such as feeding livestock) while another type may be better suited for a different use (such as feeding humans).