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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Warren G. Harding
US President 1921-23; Republican in election of 1920; favored "a society of free nations" - rec'd support from those who wanted League and those who didn't - Republican landslide victory

Historians routinely categorize Harding as the worst President in US History, due to the incredibly corrupt nature of his Administration.
Calvin Coolidge
Harding's running mate in 1920 election; US President 1923-29; Republican; became president after Harding's death; known as "Silent Cal"; made use of new medium of radio; last president who did not attempt to interfere with free markets, allowed business cycles to run their course.
James M. Cox
1920 election - Democratic candidate, loyal Wilson supporter; favored entry into the League of Nations
Franklin D. Roosevelt
1920 election - Democratic running mate of James Cox; former asst. Sec. of Navy and governor of New York
"a return to normalcy"
weary from fighting a world war and disillusioned by the failure of Wilson’s plans to create a new world order, Americans sought stability - Warren G. Harding (R)'s campaign slogan
payments for war damages; to pay its reparations Germany obtained private bank loans from other countries - especially the USA
Four Power Naval Treaty 1921
signed by US, GB, France & Japan; agreed to respect one another's Pacific holdings AND agreed to submit disputes among themselves over Pacific issues to a conference for resolution
Five-Power Naval Treaty
US, GB, Japan, France & Italy agreed to freeze their navies at 1921 levels, no new naval construction in west Pacific, limited large warships, agreed on a series of rules for the use of submarines in future warfare and also outlawed the use of poisonous gases as a military weapon.
Nine-Power Naval Treaty
the Big Four + Italy, Belgium, Portugal, Netherlands, China -- endorsed the Open Door Policy and pledged mutual respect for Chinese territorial integrity and independence; they agreed not to take advantage of conditions in China to seek special rights or privileges
Open Door Policy
aggreement to preserve equal commercial rights in China and to refrain from taking advantage of conditions to seek special trade rights or privileges
shortcomings of Washington Naval Conference
5-Power Treaty - could still build smaller vessels, i.e., submarines & destroyers

4-Power Treaty - did not commit signers to active military defense of their allies

9-Power Treaty - made no provision for enforcement of the Open Door Policy
Fordney-McCumber Act 1922
raised import duties to high levels protecting American agriculture and young industries;

authorized President to raise or lower duties by as much as 50%
technological unemployment
caused by new manufacturing; jobs were lost as occupations became obsolete
open shop
promoted by employers; a shop where workers do not have to join a union to work; in practice meant a shop closed to union members
welfare capitalism
a system to make empoyees feel more a part of the business by enabling them to buy shares of stock, by instituting profit sharing, and by providng such fringe benefits as medical care, retirement pensions, and recreational facilities
Herbert Hoover
head of Food Administration during WWI; secretary of Commerce under Harding and Coolidge; became Republican Presidential nominee in 1928
Emergency Quota Act 1921
limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 3% of the number of persons from that country living in the US in 1910 according to census figures
National Origins Act 1924
made immigration restriction a permanent policy; would reduce quota further - more than 85% of the new immigrants would be from eastern Europe - intention was to discriminate against certain nationalities & races
Sacco and Vanzetti case
two Italian anarchists were arrested, tried and executed on charges of murder; many thought they were not given a fair trial because of prejudice of their ethnic backgrounds and political beliefs - it was a period of intense fear of Communism (Red Scare 1919-20)
Albert Fall and the Teapot Dome Scandal
Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall illegally transferred oil rights of US Navy reserves to Harry F. Sinclair (Sinclair Oil) without competitive bidding; Fall also conveyed other oil reserves for personal loans at no interest - he would receive more than $300,000 in bribes and would eventually go to prison

worst scandal of President Harding's administration
Ku Klux Klan
secret society designed to intimidate African Americans, Catholics, Jews, immigrants, and "foreign ideas"; by mid-1920s would become a force in American politics despite its willingness to use terror and violence
William C. McAdoo
Alfred E. Smith
1924 Democratic rivals for presidential nomination; McAdoo favored Prohibition; Smith was a Roman Catholic opponent of Prohibition; the two would deadlock in the convention - Democrats would lose all chance of winning the election
Calvin Coolidge
US President 1923-29; Republican slogan "Keep Cool with Coolidge" (the way to keep business thriving was not to "rock the boat" but to keep in power the party that favored business)
Henry Ford
founder of Ford Motor Company; one of the first to apply assembly line manufacturing to the mass production of automobiles; pioneered use of standardized parts in automobile manufacturing; held off unionization of his factories by nearly doubling wages in 1914
Model T Ford
first automobile mass-produced on assembly lines with completely interchangeable parts marketed to the middle class; in 1914 it would take only 93 minutes to assemble; only color was black
assembly line
divided operations into such simple tasks that most of the work could be done by unskilled labor -- this reduced costs of production
General Motors and Chrysler
automobile companies that competed with Ford
domestic market
the market composed of buyers and sellers within the country
Farm Bloc
members of Congress from Midwest & Plains states; forced through several laws favoring farmers, i.e., made farm cooperatives free of antitrust laws, set up federal banks to make loans to aid farm cooperatives
McNary-Haugen Bill
supported by Farm Bloc; proposed that the federal govt buy crop surpluses and sell them abroad while protected American farmers with a high tariff; would automatically raise the domestic price; Coolidge would veto this legislation insisting on a "free play of competition"
Kellogg-Briand Pact
international attempt to outlaw war; 64 nations agreed to abandon war as an instrument of national policy and to settle disputes by peaceful means
refers to a young woman from the 1920s who would dress unconventionally and flaunt her disdain for "decent" behavior; demanded same freedoms enjoyed by men
Mary McLoed Bethune
African American who believed that through education, blacks could begin to earn a living in a country that still opposed racial equality - founded her own college & the National Council of Negro Women
postwar disillusionment
disappointment or dissatisfaction with the way things were after the war - often manifested as a criticism of American life; historicans reevaluated myths of American heroes
John T. Scopes & the Scopes Monkey Trial
court battle between religion and science; Scopes, a teacher in Dalton, TN, was arrested for teaching evolution; the ACLU wanted to test the antievolution law in TN; Scopes was found guilty and order to pay a fine for defying the ban on teaching evolution ; the Scopes trial would symbolize the tensions of the 1920s as society began to change
Clarence Darrow
one of the most famous American lawyers and civil libertarian; defended John Scopes in the "Monkey Trial"
Williams Jennings Bryan
prosecutor in the Scopes "Monkey" Trial; Fundamentalist preacher and three-time presidential candidate
Harlem Renaissance
a flowering of art and intellectualism in the US in the 1920s and early 1930s led by the African American community; it include jazz music, literature, the performing arts and painting