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28 Cards in this Set

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Photosynthesis?
a process by which organisms produce simple carbs from carbin dioxide and hydrogen
Simple Carbohydrates?
Monosaccharides & Disaccharides
Monosaccharides?
single sugars- glucose, fructose, galactose
Disaccharides?
simple sugars- linked pairs- sucrose [sugars], lactose [milk products], maltose [fermentation, alcohol production]
The typical american diet contains what percentage of carbs?
50%
Carbohydrate Needs. RDA for adults? How much prevents ketosis?
130g RDA for adults
100g prevents ketosis
Carbohydrate digestion begins where and with what?
Mouth with salivary amylase
Carbohydrate digest in the pancreas is with what?
pancreatic amylase
Carbs that aren't absorbed go where?
to the large intestine through the small intestine & can be fermented by bacteria
We store carbs by what? how about plants?
glcogen; amylose & amylopectin
What are the hormones involved in carb absorption?
insulin & glucagon
Two types of fiber?
soluble & insoluble
Soluble?
slows stomach emptying & glucose absorption, may decrease blood cholesterol
Insoluble?
increases fecal bulk, decreases intestinal transit time
What characterizes diabetes?
the body does not produce or properly use insulin, characterized by elevated blood glucose
Type 2 Diabetes?
mostly found in adults, insulin resistance, treatments are diet, exercise & long-lasting insulin
What is the structural difference between saturated & unsaturated fatty acids? What form are saturated fatty acids at room temperature?
saturated has no double bonds; solid
Examples of Saturated:
butter, palm oil
Examples of Unsaturated:
corn oil, soy bean oil
What are the essential fatty acids?
omega 6 [linoleic], omega 3 [linolenic]
What is the main source of cholesterol? is there any in peanut butter?
animal foods; no
What is the function of cholesterol?
forms important hormones and vitamin D
Where does fat digestion begin and with what?
the stomach with gastric lipase
What happens with short & medium chain fatty acids? what about long?
are water soluble, enter the portal system; re-form into triglyceridesin intestinal cells
VLDL? What is it synthesized by? What does it transport?
very low density lipoprotein; liver; transports newly made fat and cholesterol as well as any left over dietary lipids
LDL? What is it synthesized by? What does it transport? What is it known as?
low density lipoprotein; liver; cholesterol; "bad cholesterol" most abundant
HDL? What is it synthesized by? What does it transport? What is it known as?
high density lipoprotein; liver & intestine; transports cholesterol from the body's cells to the liver for excretion; "good cholesterol"
Risk Factors of heart disease? Decrease risk?
smoking, hypertension, diabetes; exercise, don't smoke