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48 Cards in this Set

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Loss of somatic protein and fat + hunger describes:
Loss of visceral protein + edema + apathy describes:
Name three chronic illnesses which contribute to Marasmus:
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), Cachexia (cancer), IBD (irritable bowel disease)
Give three things involved in COPD:
Cystic fibrosis, Emphysema, Chronic bronchitis
Give two examples of IBD:
Crohn's disease & Ulcerative colitis
List 3 fat soluble vitamins:
Vitamins A, K, & D.
What water-soluble vitamin was mentioned in class?
Vitamin C.
Are fat-soluble or water-soluble vitamins easier to digest?
Water-soluble is easier. Fat-soluble are especially hard in IBD & Liver Disease.
Give 3 things involved in Vitamin A:
Goblet cell differentiation from epithelial cells, Metaplasia in eyelids, & Rhodopsin
What's vitamin K important for?
What's vitamin D necessary for?
The absorption of calcium.
Without vitamin D, we'll get:
Osteomalacia or Rickets.
What is vitamin C necessary for?
What are most aneurysms caused by?
ATH (Atherosclerosis) + Hypertension = ____?
Thrombosis --> Emboli
What are three common locations for vascular disease?
Coronary arteries, Heart valves, and Cerebral Arteries
Coronary heart disease --> ____ (4)?
MI, Thrombus, Rupture, & Aneurysm
Give two causes of heart valve inflammation:
Streptococcus & Atherosclerosis
Heart valve inflammation can lead to (4):
Inflammation, Fibrosis, Dystrophic calcification, & Vegetation (microbes in stagnant parts)
What's a CVA?
Cerebral Vascular Accident (I.e. stroke)
What's an AAA?
Aortic Abdominal Aneurysm
How would you treat a fusiform aneurysm?
Blood-thinner drugs, drugs for stasis/stagnation, & hypertension drugs.
Name two hypertension drug types:
ACE inhibitor & Loop diuretics.
What's the most common cause of a dissecting aneurysm?
CT disorder (e.g. Marfan's Disease) (NOT hypertension + ATH)
Give two vascular diseases classified as Vasculitides:
Giant Cell Arteritis & PAN (Polyarteritis Nodosa)
Chronic granular inflammation (type IV), manifestation in the temporal artery, high sed. rate, vision threatening… = ____?
Giant Cell Arteritis
Where does PAN occur?
Polyarteritis Nodosa is in the kidneys
List 4 steps of Thrombus initiation:
1. Damage to endothelium, 2. Stasis/stagnation, 3. Inflammation, 4. Healing (rinse and repeat).
What are 3 types of thrombi?
1. Mural, 2. Occlusive, 3. Proliferative
What are the layers of a thrombus called?
"The Lines of Zahn"
How are arterial thromboembolisms formed?
Arterial thromboembolisms are formed via atherosclerosis
List some places where arterial thromboembolisms can originate (5):
Heart, aorta, carotid, renal arteries, liver, etc.
How are venous thromboembolisms formed?
Venous thromboembolisms are formed via stasis/stagnation.
Give one example of a venous thromboembolism origin:
Deep femoral vein
What color are arterial infarcts?
What color are venous infarcts?
What can venous infarcts lead to?
What shape is a white infarct?
What forms the dark boarder around a white infarct?
Hyperemia in the surrounding area
Congested alveolar blood cells would surround what kind of infarct?
A red infarct in the lungs.
A finding of vessels with a "copper-wiring" appearance is indicative of:
What are cotton wool spots associated with?
Diabetic retinopathy.
Why do you lose vision in ischemia?
Axoplasmic flow of the optic nerves is affected.
An atherosclerotic artery lying on top of a vein would cause:
Venous occlusion --> Red infarct.
What purpose does streptokinase serve?
It's a natural anti-coagulant
Why would a physician give someone t-PA?
To bust open a blood clot
Redder lines of Zahn are seen in ____ clots?
Venous occlusions
List five tumors of epithelial cell origin:
Squamous cells, Basal cells, Glands/ducts, Neuroectoderm, Internal organ cells.