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58 Cards in this Set

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Carbohydrates
digestion begins in mouth
Fats
digestion begins in small intestine
Essential fatty acid deficiency
dermatitis, hair loss, poor wound healing
Proteins
digestion begins in stomach
Kwashiorkor
dec protein intake; dec visceral protein; hypoalbuminemia (pitting edema); fatty liver
Marasmus
total calorie deprivation; dec somatic protein; broomstick extremities
Anorexia nervosa
starvation; secondary amenorrhea (dec GnRH); osteoporosis; ventricular MC COD
Body mass index (BMI):
weight in kg/height in m2
Obesity
hypertension (MC), cholecystitis, osteoarthritis, type 2 DM, endometrial/breast cancer
Leptin
obesity gene product released from adipose; maintains energy balance
Rx acute promyelocytic leukemia
All-trans retinoic acid; matures blasts to neutrophils
Vitamin A systemic effect
maintain visual purple, prevent squamous metaplasia, growth
Vitamin A deficiency
night blindness; blindness; squamous metaplasia
Vitamin A toxicity
inc intracerebral pressure; papilledema; hepatic necrosis
Vitamin D systemic effects
maintain ionized Cat+; mineralization of bone
Vitamin D metabolism
skin photoconversion or reabsorb in gut -> 1st hydroxylation liver
Vitamin D metabolism (activation)
2nd hydroxylation proximal tubule (1-a-hydroxylase)
Vitamin D deficiency
dec mineralization; pathologic fractures; rickets children; osteomalacia adults
Causes of Vit D deficiency
renal failure MCC; malabsorption; liver disease; dec sunlight
Labs in Vit D deficiency
dec Ca2+, dec phosphate (malabsorption), inc phosphate in renal failure, inc PTH
Hypervitaminosis D
inc Cat+, renal stones
Vitamin E function
prevents FR damage of cell membrane
Vitamin E deficiency
hemolytic anemia; posterior column/spinocerebellar tract degeneration
Vitamin E toxicity
dec synthesis vitamin K-dependent procoagulation factors; anticoagulated
Vitamin K function
gamma-carboxylates vitamin K-dependent factors: prothrombin, VII, IX, X, protein C/S
Vitamin K deficiency
dec epoxide reductase activity (dec function vitamin K); hemorrhagic diathesis; inc PT
Warfarin
inhibits epoxide reductase
Causes of vitamin K deficiency
antibiotics MC, newborn, malabsorption, warfarin
Thiamine functions
transketolase; dehydrogenase reactions (NADH for ATP synthesis)
Example of dehydrogenase reaction
pyruvate -> acetyl CoA; pyruvate dehydrogenase
Thiamine deficiency
alcohol MCC; dec ATP synthesis
S/S of thiamine deficiency
dry beriberi- Wernicke's, Korsakoffs, peripheral neuropathy; wet beriberi- cardiomyopathy
Niacin
oxidation reduction reactions; NAD, NADP
Niacin deficiency
pellagra; dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia
Tryptophan important in
synthesis of niacin, serotonin
Tryptophan deficiency
Hartnup's disease (dec reabsorption neutral amino acids); carcinoid syndrome
S/S of niacin deficiency
diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia
Corn diet
deficient in niacin and tryptophan
Pyridoxine
heme synthesis, transamination, neurotransmitter synthesis
Cause of pyridoxine deficiency
taking isoniazid
Pyridoxine (B6) deficiency
sideroblastic anemia; convulsions; peripheral neuropathy
Vitamin B12/folate
DNA maturation, odd chain fatty acid metabolism (propionyl CoA)
Vitamin B12/folate deficiency
macrocytic anemia
Biotin
carboxylase reactions (pyruvate -> oxaloacetate)
Cause of biotin deficiency
eating raw eggs (avidin binds vitamin)
S/S of biotin deficiency
alopecia, dermatitis
Vitamin C
antioxidant, reduce ferric iron, hydroxylation proline/lysine, dopamine -> norepinephrine
Vitamin C deficiency
scurvy; hemorrhagic diathesis; poor wound healing
Alkalotic state
lowers ionized Ca2+ producing tetany; total Ca2+ normal
Hypoalbuminemia
lowers total Cat+; no tetany
Hypophosphatemia
decreased ATP; myoglobinuria
Hypomagnesemia
causes hypocalcemia by inhibiting PTH synthesis/release
Zinc deficiency
poor wound healing; dysgeusia (cannot taste); anosmia; perioral rash
Copper deficiency
iron deficiency; poor wound healing (cofactor lysyl oxidase); aortic dissection
Iodine deficiency
produces goiter and hypothyroidism
Chromium deficiency
glucose intolerance
Selenium
antioxidant that neutralizes peroxide
Fluoride deficiency
dental caries