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34 Cards in this Set

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Carbohydrates
4Kcal/gram
largest source of dietary calories
low income=more carbs
Types of carbohydrates found in plants
types found in animals
plants: Polysaccharides starch and cellulose(unbranched)
disaccharide sucrose, sugar alcohold sorbitol

animals: polysacch glycogen and disacch lactose
what is starch made of?
20% unbranched amylose and 80% branched amylopectin
what is the AMDR
acceptable macronutrient distribution range
45-65% of energy intake should be carbs
250g on a 2000 Cal diet
RDA
recommended dietary allowance(meets needs of almost all), 130g/day of carbs based on avg min glc used by brain

actual intakes are 200-300/day
EAR
estimated avg requirement, (meet needs of 50%) 100g/day
describe carbohydrate digestion in mouth
mouth: alpha-amylase hydrolyzes random alpha 1,4bonds in starch to get dextrins, maltotriose(alpha 1,4 trisacch of glucose), maltose, and isomaltose(alpha 1,6 disacch of gluc)

beta 1,4 bonds(cellulose)
alpha 1,6 bonds(glycogen and amylopectin) are resistant
describe digestion of carbs through stomach and pancrease
stomach - low pH stops alpha amylase

Pancreas -bicarbonate raises pH, pancreatic alpha amylase produces dextrin maltotriose and maltose
describe digestion in duodenum and jejunum
saccharides digested by lactase, sucrase, maltase (digest maltotriose and maltose), and isomaltase(digest dextrins)
what do the following break down into
lactose
sucrose
maltose/maltotriose
dextrins
lactose = galac +gluc
sucrose = fruc + gluc
maltose = gluc
dextrins = gluc
Lactose intolerance
LACTASE DEFICIENCY
primary: loss of lactase at about 2 yrs old (adulat hypolactasia)
secondary: diseae or disorder of digestive tract
symptoms of lactose intolerance and cause
lactose is fed on by bact creating gas(H2,CH4, CO2) and lactic acid in large intestine

lactose creates osmotic effect pulling in water to colon
lactose intolerance
diagnosis and treatment
diag - measure H2 in breath after lactose exposure
treatments - reduce dairy products or increase time of exposure

makes sure to still eat Ca: tofu,broccoli, kale, collard, yogurt, cheese
uptake of monosacchs in gut
jejunum: enterocytes:

galactose and glucose - Na-Glc transporter SGLT 1, secondary active

Fructose: GLUT 5 facilitated diffusion

Sugar alcohols: passive diffusion, chewing gum diarrhea
uptake of monosacchs from enterocytes to blood
GLUT2 transports galac gluc and fruc
insoluble vs soluble fiber
insoluble: cellulose and lignin

soluble: hemicellulose pectins and gums (oatmeal) metabolized by gut bact
what fiber does
binds H2O
hypoglycemic effect
hypocholesterolemic effect
fermented by anaerobes
H2O binding of fiber
increases viscosity -> decrease digestion speed, this increases satiety

enlarge and soften stool for shorten fecal transit time(moves faster)
hypoglycemic effect
fiber blunts glycemic response(strength and speed of rise in blood glucose compared to white bread), so less insulin spike

low glycemic index foods can reduce insulin, nonenzymatic protein glycosylation, and of course blood glucose
glycemic load
Glycemic Load = glycemic index (as a %) x carbohydrate content (in grams)

Thus, a food (like carrots) might have a high glycemic index, but the amount of carbohydrate is small, so it can still be a good component of a dietary regimen.

GI/100

under 10 is low
glycemic index
ranking of foods based on the glycemic response

under 55 is low
fiber and bile acids
bind bile acids which are derived from cholesterol, and so decrease cholesterol in body
substances of plant origin haveing a pharm effect
phytoceuticals
or
nutraceuticals
fermentation of fiber in colon
SOLUBLE fiber fermented by anaerobes
produce gas and
SCFA(2-4C): fecal bulking(microbial prolif), aid for diarrhea because it promotes uptake of H2O and Na when it's absorbed in colon
how much fiber is recommended?
how much is actually consumed
DV?
recomm: 21-28g/day (50 if you have diabetes/hyperlipemia)

actual: 13.5 g/day

Daily value - 25g/2000cal diet
not enough fiber
defecation problems,(constipation, hemmroids)

intestinal diverticula from increased pressure needed to expel feces
accumulation of fecal matter leading to inflammation and treated with Ab, initial low fiber and then high fiber intake
too much fiber
constipation if not enough water consumed, hunger is quickly satisfied, decreased mineral cations like Ca since they bind to fibers acidic component of fiber
Simple carbs added to foods
sweetners
high fructose corn syrup

1960's, now over 20% of carbs, soluble cheap and 40% sweeter than sucrose

BUT: bypasses key regulatory steps in glycolysis so more substrate availability for fat syn
sugar alcohols
not abs to same extent. sorbitol has a laxative effect
saccharin
aspartame
sucralose
sweetness level?
saccharin- 300 times sweeter sweet n low
aspartame - 200X sweeter, dipeptide Equal
sucralose - 5-600 X,splenda chlorinated sucrose
net carbohydrate
total carbs - fiber and sugar alcohols
dental caries
simple carbs broken down to acids by bacterial plaque, acid dissolves tooth enamel

freq and duration of exposure is important

fluoride in water, sugar alcohols dont support plaque bacteria
high carb low protein meal
rise in serotonin = sedation and carb craving
sac-like herniations, a condition which is referred to as diverticulosis. While relatively asymptomatic, this can progress to diverticulitis, a painful condition which may progress to perforation, acute bleeding, obstruction, and/or sepsis. Diverticulosis is thought to result from increased intracolonic pressures, while diverticulitis is an inflammatory condition consequent to sepsis
Current thinking is that a high-fiber diet, by promoting soft, bulky stools that pass more quickly, protects against diverticular disease, and this has been supported in clinical research.