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179 Cards in this Set

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Food
medically, any substance that the body can take in and assimilate that will enable it to stay alive and to grow; the carried of nourishment; socially, a more limited number of such substances defined as accetable by each culture.
nutrition
THe stuyd of the nutrients in foods and in the body; sometimes also the study of human behaviors related to food.
diet
the foods (including beverages) a person usually eats and drinks
nutrients
components of food that are indespencable to the body's functioning. they provide energy, serve as a building material, help maintian or repair boyd parts, and support growth. The nutrients include water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals.
malnutrition
any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients. Nutrient or enevery deficiencies are classes as forms of undernutrition; nutrient or energy excesses are classes as forms of overnurtrition.
Chronic disease
long-duraiton degenerative disease characterized by deterioration of ody organs. Examples include heart disease, cancer and diabetes.
genome
the full complement of genetic material in the chromosomes of a cell. The study of genomes is genomics,
DNA
an abberviation for deoxyribonucleic avid, the molecule that encodes genetic information in its structure.
genes
units of a cell's inheritance, made of chemical DNA, Each gene directs the making of one or more proteins, which perform important tasks in the body.
nutritional genomics
the science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes and how genes affect the activities of nutrients. also called molecular nutrition or nutrigenomics.
energy
the capacity to do work. The energy in food is chemical energy; it can be converted to mechanical, electrical, heat or other forms of energy in the body. Food energy is measured in calories.
organic
carbon containing. four of the six classes of nutrients are organic: carbohydrate, fat, protein, and vitamins. stsricly speaking, organic compounds include only those made by living things and do not include carbon dioxide and a few carbon salts.
energy-yielding nutrients
the nutrients the body can use for energy. They may also supply building blocks for boedy structures.
essential nutrients
the nutrients the body cannot make for itself from other raw materials; nutrients that must be obtained from food to prevent deficiencies.
calories
units of energy. Strictly speaking, the unit used to measure the enrgy in foods is a kilocalorie; it is the amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of a kilogram of water 1 degree celsius.
grams
units of weight. A gram is the weight of a cubic centimeter or millileter of water under defined condition of temperature and pressure. About 28 grams equals an ounce.
dietary supplements
pills, liquids or powders that contain purified nutrients or other ingredients.
elemental diets
diets composed of purified ingredients of known chemical composition; intended to supply all essential nutrients to people who cannot eat foods.
nonnutrients
a term used in this book to mean compounds other than the six nutrients that are present in foods nad have biological activity in the body.
phytochemicals
nonnutrient compounds in plant-derived foods that have biological activity in the body.
basic foods
milk and milk products; vegetables...etc. also called whole foods.
enriched foods and fortified foods
foods to which nutrients have been added. if the strating material is awhole, basic food such as milk or whole grain, the result may be highly nutritious. If the starting material is a concentrated form of sugar or fat, the result may be less nutritious.
fast food
restauraunt foods that are available withing minutes.
functional foods
a term that reflects an attempt to define as a group the foods known to possess nutrients or nonnutrients that might lend protection against disease. However, all nutritious foods can support health in some ways.
natural foods
a term that has no legal definition, but is often used to imply wholesomeness.
nutraceutical
a temr that has no lega or scientific meaning, but is sometimes used to refer to fodos, nutrients or dietary supplements believe to have medicinal effects. Often used to sell unnecessary or unproved supplements.
organic foods
understood to mean foods grown without synthetic pesticides or fertilizers.
partitioned foods
foods composed of parts of whole foods, such as butter (from milk), sugar (from beets or cane), or corn oil. Partitioned foods are generally overused and prvide few nutrients with many calories.
processed foods
foods usbjected to any process, such as miling, alteration of texture, addition of additives, cooking, or other. Depending on the starting material and the process, a processed food may or may not be nutritious.
staple foods
foods used frequently or daily, for example rice or potatoes.
adequacy
the dietary characteristic of providing all of the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health and body weight.
balance
the dietary characteristic of providing fodos of a number of types in proportion to each other, such tha tfoods rich in some nutrients do not crowd out of the diet foods that are rich in other nutrients. Proportionality.
calorie control
control of energy intake; a feature of a sound diet plan.
moderation
the dietary characteristic of providing constituents within set limits, not excess.
variety
the dietary characteristic of providing a wide selection of foods.
legumes
beans, peas, and lentils, valued as inexspensive sources of protein, vitamins, and minerals, and fiber that contribute little fat to the diet.
cuisines
styles of cooking
foodways
the sume of a culture's habits, customs, beliefs and preferences concerning foods.
ethnic foods
foods associated with aprtiicular cultural subgroups within a population
omnivores
people who eat foods of both plant and animal origin, including animal flesh.
vegetarians
people who exclude from their diets animal flesh and possibly other animal products such as milk, cheese and eggs.
blind experiment
an experiment in which the subjects do not know whether they are members of the experimental group or the control group. In a double-blind experiement neither the subjects nor the subjects nor the researchers know to which group the members belong until the end of the experiment.
case studies
studies of individuals. In clinical settings, researchers can observe treatments and their apparent effects. To prove that a treatment has produced an effect requires simultaneous observation of an untreated similar subject.
control group
a group of individuals who are similar in all possible respects to the group being treated in an experiment but who receive a sham treatment instead of the real one. Also called control subjects.
correlation
the simultaneous change of two factors, such as the increase of weight with increasing height or the decrease of cancer incidence with increasing fiber intake. A correlation between two factors suggests that one may cause the other, but does not rule out the possibility that both may be caused by chance or by a third factor.
epidemiological studies
studies of populations; often used in nutrition to search for correlations between dietary habits and disease incidence; a firststep in seeking nutrition related causes of diseases.
experimental group
the people or animals participating in an experiment.
intervention studies
studies of populations in which observation is accompanied by experimental manipulation of some population members - for example, a study in which half of the subjects follow diet advice to reduce fat intakes while the other half do not, and both groups heart health is monitored.
laboratory studies
studies that are performed under tightly controlled conditions and are designed to pinpoint causes and effects. Such studies often use animals.
placebo
a sham treatment often used in scientific studies; an intert harmless medication. The placebo effect is the healing effect that the act of treatment, rather than the treatment itself, often has.
nutrient density
a measure of nutrients provded per calorie of food.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
a set of four lists of values for measuring the nutrient intakes of healthy people in the United States. The Four lists are EAR, RDA, AI, UL.
Daily Values
nutrient standards that are printed on food labels. Based on nutrient and energy recommendations for a general 2,000 calories diet, they allow consumers to compare the nutrient and energy contents of packaged foods.
RDA - recommended dietary allowances
nutrient intake goals for individuals; the average daily nutrient intake level that meets the needs of nearly all or healthy people in a particular life stage and gender group.
AI - adequate intakes
nutrient intakek goals for individuals; the recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on intakes of healthy people in a particular life stage and gender group.
UL - tolerable upper intake level
the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to psoe no risk of toxicity to almost all healthy individuals of a particular life stage and gender group.
EAR -estimated average requirements
the average daily nutrient intake estimated to meet the requirement of half of the healthy individuals
AMDR - acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges
values for carbohydrate, fat, and protein expressed as percentages of total daily caloric intake ; ranges of intakes set for the energy yielding nutrients that are sufficient to provide adequate total energy and nutrients while reducing the risk of chronic diseases.
Balance study
a laboratory study in which a person is fed a controlled diet and the intake and excretion of a nutrient are measured. Balance studies are valid only for nutrients like calcium (chemical elements) tha t do not change while they are in the body.
requirement
the amount of nutrient that will just prevent the development of specific deficiency signs; distringuished from the DRI recommended intake value, which is a generous alowance with a margin of safety.
Food group plan
a diet plannin tool that sorts foods into groups based on their nutrient content and then specifies that people should eat certain minimum numbers of serving of foods from each group
exchange system
a diet planning tool that organizes foods with respect to their nutrient contents and calorie amounts. Food on any single exchange list can be used interchangeably.
discretionary calorie allowance
the balance of calories remaining in a person's energy allowance after accounting for the number of calories needed to meet recommended nutrient intakes through consumptino of nutrient dense foods.
HEI - healthy eating index
a dietary assessment tool that evaluates a diet's adherence to the principles of the USDA Food Guide and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, as well as the variety of foods the diet contains.
High
20% or more of the Daily Value for a gien nutrient per serving; "rich in" "excellent source"
Good Source
10 - 19% of the DV per serving
Healhy
low in fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol and sodium and containing atleast 10% of the DV for vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, protein or fiber.
Free
none or a trivial amount. Calorie free means containin fewer than 5 calories per serving; sugar free or fat free means containing less than half a gram per serving.
cells
the smallest units in which independent life can exist. All living things are single cells or made of cells.
enzyme
any of a great number of working proteins that speeds up a specific chemical reaction, such as breaking the bonds of a nutrient, without undergoing change itself.
fat cells
cells that specialize in the storage of fat and form the fat tissue. Fat cells also produce enzymes that metabolize fat and hormones involved in appetite and energy balance.
tissues
systems of cells working together to perform spexialized tasks.
organs
discrete structural units made of tissues that perform specific jobs
body system
a group of organs that work together to perform a function
blood
the fluid of the cardiovascular system; composed of water, red and white blood cells; particles, nutrients, O2
lymph
the fluid that moves from the bloodstream into tissue spaces and then travels in its own vessels, which eventually drain back into the bloodstream
veins
blood vessels that carry blood, with the carbon dioxide it has collected, from tissues to the heart
arteries
blood vessels that carry blood containing fresh oxygen from heart to tissues.
capillaries
minute, weblike blood vessels that connect arteries to veins and permit transfer of materials between blood and tissues.
plasma
the cell-free fluid part of blood and lymph
extracellular fluid
fluid residing outside the cells that transports materials to and from the cells
intracellular fluid
fluid residing inside the cells that provides the medium for cellular reactions.
lungs
the body's organs of gas exchange.
intestine
the body's long tubular organ of digestions, nutrient absorption
liver
a large, lobed organ that lies just under the ribs. It filters the blood, removes and processes nutrients, manufactors materials for export to other parts of the body, and destroys toxins or stores them to keep them out of the circulation.
kidneys
a pair of organs that filter wastes from the blood, make urine, and release it to the bladder for excretion from the body.
hormones
chemicals that are secreted by glands into the blood in response to conditions in the body that require regulation.
pancreas
an organ with two main functions. Endocrine function: the making of hormones such as inculin. Exocrine: digestive enzymes.
insulin
a hormone from the pancreas that helps glucose enter cells from the blood.
glucagon
a hormone from the pancreas that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the bloodstream
cortex
the outermost layer of something. brains concious thought takes place.
hypothalamus
a part of the brain that senses a variety of conditions in the blood, such as temperature, glucose content, salt content and others.
fight or flight reactions
the body's instinctive hormon adn nerve mediated reactions to danger.
neurotransmitters
chemicals that are released at the end of a nerve cell when a nerve impulse arrives there. Inhibit or excite.
epinephrine
the major hormone that elicits the stress response.
norepinephrine
a compounds related to epinephrine that helps elicit the stress response.
metabolism
the sum of all physical and chemical changes taking place in living cells; includes all reactions by which te hbody obtains and spends the energy from food.
microbes
bacteria, viruses or other organisms invisible to the eye.
antigen
a microbe or substane that is foreign to the body.
immune system
a system of tissues and organs that d efend the body against antigens, foreign materials that have penetrated the skin or body linings.
lymphocytes
white blood cells that participate in the immune response; B- cells and T- cells
phagocytes
white blood cells that can ingest and destroy antigens.
t-cells
lymphocytes that attack antigens.
B-cells
lymphocytes that produce antibodies. B stands for bursa, an organ in the chicken where the cell was first described.
antibodies
proteins, made by cells of the immune system, that are expressly designed to combine with and inactivate specific antigens.
digestive system
the body system composed of organs that break down complex food particles into smaller, absorbable products. The digestive tract and alimentary canal are names for the tubular organs that extend from the mouth to the anus. The whole system including the pancreas, liver and gall bladder
digest
to break molecules into smaller molecules
absorb
to take in, as nutrients are taken into the intestinal cells after digestion.
peristalsis
the wavelike muscular squeezing of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine that pushes their contents along.
stomach
a muscular, elastic, pouchlike organ of the digestive system that grinds and churns swwallowed food and mixes it with acid and enzymes forming chyme.
sphincter
a circular muscle surrounding, and able to close, a body opening.
pyloric valve
circular muscle of the lower stomach, regulating flow into SI.
small intestine
20 feet in length, responsible for the absorption of nutrients.
large intestine
absorbs water
feces
waste material
gastric juice
digestive secretion of stomach
bile
a cholesterol containing digestive fluid made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine when needed. IT emulsifies fats and oils to ready them for enzymatic digestion.
emulsifier
a compounds with both water soluble and fat soluble portions that can attract fats and oils into water, combining them.
pancreatic juice
fluid secreted by the pancreas that contains both enzymes to digest carbohydrate, fat, and protein and sodium bicarbonate, a neatralizing agent.
bicarbonate
a common alkaline chemical; a secretion of the pancreas, also actie ingredient of baking soda.
villi
finger like projections of the sheets of cells that line the intestinal tract. makes surface area greater.
microvilli
tiny, hairlike projections on each cell of every villus that greatly expand the surface rea.
hiccups
spasm of both the vocal cords and the diaphragm, causing periodic, audible, short, inhaled coughs.
heartburn
a burning sensation in the chest, caused by backflow of stomach juices into esophagus
antacids
medication sthat react directly and immediately with the acid in the stomach, neautralizing it.
glycogen
a storage form of carbohydrate energy (glucose)
adipose tissue
the body's fat tissue, consisting of masses of fat storing cells and blood vessels to nourish them.
ethanol
the alcohol of alcoholic beverages
Carbohydrates
compounds composed of single or multiple sugars. carbon and water, and a chemical shorthand for carbohydrate CHO.
complex carbohydrates
long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or fiber; also called polysaccharides.
simple carbohydrates
sugars, including both single sugar units and linked pairs of sugar units. The basic sugar unit is a molecule containing six carbon atoms, together with oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
photosynthesis
the process by which green plants make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water using the green pigment chlorophyll to capture the sun's energy.
chlorophyll
the green pigment of plants that captures energy from sunlight for use in photosynthesis.
sugars
simple carbohydrates, that is, molecules of either single sugar units or pairs of those sugar units bonded together. By common usage, sugar most often refers to sucrose.
glucose
a single sugar used in both plant and animal tissues for energy
monosaccharides
single sugar units
disaccharides
pairs of single sugar units
fructose
a monosaccharide, sometimes known as fruit sugar
galactose
a monosaccharide part of the disaccharide lactose milk
maltose
a disacharide composed of two glucose units
sucrose
a disacharide composed of glucose and fructose; sometimes known as table, beet or cane sugar. simply sugar.
lactose
a disacharide composed of a glucose and galactose.
starch
a plant polysacharide composed of glucose. AFter cooking, starch is highyl digestible.
granules
small grains. starch granules are packages of starch molecules. various plant species make starch granules of varying shapes.
glycogen
a highly branched polysaccharide composed of glucose that is made and stored by liver and muscle tissues of human beings and animals as a storage form of glucose. Glycogen is not a significant food source of carbohydrate and is not counted as one of the complex carbohydrates in foods.
fibers
the indigestible parts of plant foods, largely nonstarch polysaccharides that are not digested by human digestive enzymes, although some are digested by resident bacteria of the colon. Fibers include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, and mucilages and the non polysaccharide lignin.
soluble fibers
food components that readily dissolve in water and often impart gummy or gel-like characteristics to foods. an example is pectin from fruit, which is used to thicken jellies. Soluble fibers are indigestible by human enzymes but may be broken down to absorbable products by bacteria in the digestive tracts.`
viscous
having a sticky, gummy, or gel like consistency that flows relatively slow.
insoluble fibers
the ough, fibrous sturctures of fruits, vegetables, and grains; indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water.
diverticula
sacs or pouches that balloon out of the intestinal wall, caused by weakening of the muscle layers that encase the intestine. The painful inflammation of one or more of these diverticula is known as diverticulitis.
butyrate
a small fat fragment produced by the fermenting action of bacteria on viscous, soluble fibers; the preferred energy source for the colon cells.
chelating agents
molecules that attract or bind with other molecules and are therefore useful in either preventing or promoting movement of substances from place to place.
resistant starch
the fraction of starch in a food that is digested slowly, or not at all, by human enzymes
lactose intolerance
impaired ability to digest lactose due to reduced amounts of the enzyme lactase.
lactase
the intestinal enzyme that splits the disaccharide lactose to monosaccharides during digestion.
protein sparing action
the actions of carbohydrate and fat in providing energy that allows protein to be used for purposes it alone can serve.
ketone bodies
acidic, fat related compounds that can arise from the incomplete breakdown of fat when carbohydrate is not available.
ketosis
an undesirable high concentration of ketone bodies, such as acetone, in the blood or urine.
insulin
a hormon secreted by the pancreas in response to a high blood glucose concentration. draws glucose from blood to cells
glucagon
a hormone secreted by the pancreas that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood when blood glucose concentration dips.
glycemic index (GI)
a ranking of foods according to their potential for raising blood glucose relative to a standard such as glucose or white bread.
glycemic load
a mathematical expression of both the glycemic index and the carbohydrate content of a good, meal, or diet (glycemic index multiplied by grams carbohydrate)
diabetes
a disease characterized by elevated blood glucose and inadequate or ineffective insulin, which impairs a person's ability to regulate blood glucose normally.
type 1 diabetes
the type of diabetes in which the pancreas produces no or very little insulin; often diagnosed in childhood, although some cases arise in adulthood. formerly called juvenil-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes.
type 2 diabetes
the type of diabetes in which the pancreas makes plenty of insulin, but the body's cells resist insulin's action; often diagnosed in adulthood.
insulin resistance
a condition in which a normal or high level of insulin produces a less than normal response by the tissues; thought to be a metabolic consequence of obesity.
impaired glucose tolerance
blood glucose level higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes sometimes called prediabetes
dialysis
in kidney disease, treatment of the blood to remove toxic substances or metabolic wastes; more propery hemodialysis.
hypoglycemia
a blood glucose concentration below normal, a symptom that may indicate any of several diseases, including impending diabetes.
postprandial hypoglycemia
an unusual drop in blood glucose that follow a meal and is accompanied by sumptoms such as anxiety, rapid heartbeat, and sweating; also called reactive hypoglycemia.
fasting hypoglycemia
hypoglycemia that occurs after 8 to 14 horus of fasting
naturally occurring sugars
sugars that are not added to a food but are present as its original constituents, such as the sugars of fruit or milk.
added sugars
sugars and syrups added to a food for any purpose, such as to add sweetness or bulkd or to aid in browning. also called carbohydrate sweeteners, they include glucose, fructose, corn syrup, cncentrate fruit juice, and other sweet carbohydrates.
acesulfame potassium . aka acesulfame- K
a zero calorie sweetener
alitame
a noncaloric sweetener formed from the amino acids L=aspartic acid and L-alanin.
aspartame
a compound of phenylalanine and aspartic acid that tastes liek the sugar sucrose but is much sweeter.
cyclamate
a zero calorie sweetener
isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol
sugar alcohols that can be derived from fruits or commercially produced from a sugar
neotame
an artificial sweetener composed of two amino acids, linked in such a way that makes them indigestible to humans.