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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
______ is a major constituent of alveolar bone.
Collagen
Up to ___% of total bone calcium remains in an amorphous state.

a. 2
b. 5
c. 10
d. 12
c. 10
Teeth are composed of 3 calcified structures.
1. enamel
2. dentin
3. cementum
What % of bone, dentin, cementum is organic material?
20
What % of enamel is organic material?
1
Enamel is comparable to the hardness of _____.
quartz
Minerals are divided into _____ and ____.
Micronutrients and major minerals
True or False

Vitamins are inorganic and minerals are organic
False

Vitamins are organic and minerals are inorganic
At least 99% of the body's calcium is found in the _____ and ____.
skeleton and teeth.
What is the most abundant mineral in the body?
Calcium
What mineral plays a role in blood clotting?
Calcium
Where is calcium absorbed?
intestine.
Deficiencies in calcium can result in insufficient absorption in ______ and ____.
Vitamin D and phosphorus
Menopausal women have decreased calcium absorption due to decreased _____.
estrogen levels
Calcium supplement absorption can be enhanced if taken with ________.
some form of sugar
What antibiotic decreases the absorption of calcium?
Tetracycline
_____ keeps calcium soluble.
Stomach acid
To maximize calcium absorption, the body needs adequate _____ and ____.
vitamin D & protein
In the US ____ & ____ provides most of the calcium in the diet
Milk and Dairy
Hypercalcemia can be caused by excessive calcium intake and ______.
hyperparathyroidism
In regards to minerals, kidney stones can be caused by excessive intake of ____.
calcium
Hypocalcemia results in ____.
tetany
Without _____, most women tend to lose 2-5% of bone tissue per year.
estrogen
The _____ is a common sign of osteoporosis.
Dowagers Hump
What is the second most abundunt mineral in the body?
phosphorus
What % of phosphorus is in the skeleton and teeth?
85
What mineral functions in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins?
Phosphorus
Low serum phosphorus stimulates the kidney to produce more ______.
vitamin D
A diet adequate in calcium and protein will contain enough _____ as well.
phosphorus
True or False

Deficiencies in phosphorus have not been observed.
True - because phosphorus is very abundent in foods
Hyperphosphatemia may occur in cases of _____ or ____.
hypoparathyroidism or renal deficiency
Deficiency of phosphorus is usually the results of overconsumption of ______ that contain ______.
antacids & aluminum hydroxide.
True or False

Aluminum competes with phosphorus for absorption.
True
Bones contain almost _____ of the body's magnesium.
2/3
What is the third most abundant mineral in teeth?
Magnesium
What mineral functions to maintain calcium homeostasis?
Magnesium
What mineral is issential for mineralization of bones and teeth?
Magnesium
What mineral is responsible for activating enzymes that release energy from carbohydrates, fats, and lipids>
Magnesium
Magnesium competes with ____ for absorption.
Calcium
The major food sources of magnesium are foods that contain _____.
chlorophyll- green leaft veggies
Which mineral has been associated with kidney failure and includes symptoms such as lethargy, sedation, hypotension, and low pulse?
Magnesium
Deficiencies of this mineral can be seen in gastrointestinal abnormalities, renal disease, PEM, and alcoholism.
Magnesium
Dietart deficiencies of this mineral are associated with alveolar bone formation being reduced, widening of the periodontal ligament space, and gingival hyperplasia.
Magnesium
True or False

Fluroride is considered an essential nutrient
False
Most fluoride is absorbed in the _____.
stomach.
The optimal fluoride level ranges between ______.
.7 - 1.2 ppm.
The richest source of fluoride is _______.
seafood
At levels of more than ___ crippling skeletal fluorisis results.
10 ppm