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149 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the three classifications of nutrients?
energy nutrients
organic nutrients
inorganic nutrients
_____ nutrients release energy for use by the body
energy
_____ nutrients build and maintain body tissues and regulate body processes.
organic
_____ nutrients provide a medium for the body's chemical reactions, transport materials, maintain body temp., promote bone formation and conduct nerve impulses
inorganic
What is THE most important nutrient?
water
A person can survive no more than ____ days without water
10
Approximately ___%-___% of an adult's weight is water
50% - 60%
Approximately ___%-___% of an infant's weight is water
70% - 75%
The body's water content ____ with age
decreases
Approximately _____ of the water in the body is intracellular fluid
two-thirds
Approximately _____ of the water in the body is extracellular fluid
one-third
Name the four ways water is excreted from the body
urine
feces
perspiration
respiration
Generally, _____mL of water is needed to process every 1,000 kcal eaten
1,000
When water serves as the liquid in which substances are dissolved to form solutions, it is functioning as a ____
solvent
When water carries nutrients, wastes and other materials throughout the body and to and from each cell via blood, tissue fluids and body secretions, it is functioning as a _____
transporter
When water is excreted as perspiration when the temperature rises, thereby cooling the body, it is functioning as a ____
regulator (of body temperature)
As a component of fluid within the joints (synovial fluid), water is functioning as a _____
lubricant
When water gives structure and form to the body, it is functioning as a ____
component of all cells
When water breaks substances apart, especially in metabolism, it is functioning in the process of _____
hydrolysis
____% of total body weight is intracellular fluid
65
The main electrolyte in intracellular fluid is _______
potassium
____% of total body weight is in the form of extracellular fluid
35
The main electrolyte found in extracellular fluid is ____
sodium
____ is not digested and not stored by the body
water
In ____ water loss, the person is aware of the loss
sensible
In ____ water loss the person is not aware of the loss
insensible
In _____, water moves from a lesser solute to a greater solute
osmosis
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, inadequate intake, excessive perspiration/respiration can lead to a deficiency of water called _____
dehydration
An excessive accumulation of fluid in the body is a condition known as ___ ____ _____, resulting in edema (usually the cause is sodium not being excreted properly)
positive water balance
A steady state, or internal stability, of the water / electrolyte and acid / base balance is known as ____
homeostasis
When electrolytes in extracellular space _____, ICF moves to ECF
increases
______is a condition in which the thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine and can significantly accelerate body metabolism, causing sudden weight loss, rapid or irregular heartbeat, sweating, and nervousness or irritability
Hyperthyroidism
____ is a condition in which the thyroid gland doesn't produce enough thyroxine and can cause obesity, joint pain, infertility edema and CHF
Hypothyroidism
A loss of ___% of water in body can cause serious problems
10%
Loss of ____% of body water can cause circulatory failure and death
20%
When more water is taken in than excreted, a person has ___ ____ ___ and edema may result
fluid volume overload
hydrogen ion concentration regulates the ____ of the body fluids
acidity
The kidneys and lungs are ____ systems in the acid-base balance process
buffering
_____ systems provide feedback mechanisms, prevent excessive changes in hydrogen ion concentration and either remove or release hydrogen ions to restore balance
buffering
The major chemical buffer system in the body is the ______ ______ system
bicarbonate-carbonic acid
Metabolism produces large amounts of ____ as a by-product
acids
In an acid state, the body can't blow off enough hydrogen ions; too many hydrogen ions cause the respiratory rate to ______
increase
In an alkaline state, the body is blowing off too many hydrogen ions, resulting in a _____ respiratory rate
decreased
____-ash foods include meat, fish, poultry, and eggs (protein)
acid
_____-ash foods include fruits and vegetables
alkaline
Milk contains acid and alkaline but is predominantly _____ so we call it neutral
alkaline
Normal urine pH is ____
6
The function of lipoproteins is to
carry fat to cells
____ emulsifies fat
bile
Any substance that ends in the suffix "____" is an enzyme that breaks down other substances
-ase
Carbohydrates are composed of what three elements?
carbon
hydrogen
oxygen
(CHO)
How many kcal per 1 g does CHO have?
4
Carbohydrates should compose ___%-___% of a person's kcal per day
50%-60%
What is the primary source of energy for all body functions?
CHO
The body stores approximately _____ a day's supply of CHO in the ____ and ____ for use as needed
one half
liver
muscles
A sufficient supply of CHO _____ _____ from being used for energy
spares proteins
CHOs are needed to _____ _____ completely
oxidize fats
CHOs are needed for synthesis of ____ ____ and _____ _____
fatty acids
amino acids
If fat is incompletely oxidized, what accumulates in blood / urine?
ketones
The stored form of CHO is ____
glycogen
The only animal source of CHO is ____
milk
If a food product is ______, the manufacturer added more nutrients than what the food had naturally
fortified
If a food product is ____, the manufacturer has put back what they took out during processing
enriched
What are the four forms of monosaccharides?
glucose
fructose
galactose
sorbitol
_____ require no digestion, are quickly absorbed and are either used for energy or stored as glycogen
monosaccharides
_____ is the most common sugar found in the body
glucose
All sugar forms are converted by the body into _______
(the final product of digestion)
glucose (aka dextrose)
Fructose and other monosaccharides are converted to glucose in the _____
liver
Glucose that isn't needed for energy asap is converted to _____
glycogen
The sweetest of all sugars is ____, found in honey, fruits and corn syrup
fructose
_____ is not found naturally, rather it is the end product of milk digestion
galactose
____ is an alcohol derivative of glucose commonly used in sugar free/diet products
sorbitol
____ is a double sugar composed of two single sugars joined together
disaccharides
Before they can be absorbed by the body, disaccharides must be separated into _____ through digestion
monosaccharides
What are the three forms of disaccharides?
sucrose
lactose
maltose
Milk, sweeteners, sugar, molasses are examples of _____
disaccharides
____ is a mixture of fructose and glucose which combine to form a double sugar; sweetest and cheapest available
sucrose
_____ helps the body absorb Ca, found only in the mammary glands
lactose
Lactose is split by lactase into _____ and ______
galactose and glucose
When a person doesn't produce enough lactase in the body, they are considered ______ _____
lactose intolerant
______ is the product of young, growing grain and the digestion of starch in the body; produced by enzyme action and is readily soluble
maltose
Triple sugars are called ______
trisaccharides
The trisaccharide _____ is found in molasses
raffinose
"raffle off sorghum!"
Complex CHO are known as _____
polysaccharides
_____ are composed of many single sugars joined together; the most significant of these in the diet is starch
polysaccharides
_____ is stored in plants and is found in grains, grain products, legumes, potatoes roots, tubers and other vegetables
starch
____ cells in the Islets of Langerhans secret glucagon to increase blood glucose levels
alpha
____ cells produce insulin which lowers blood glucose levels
beta
_____ is the term for normal blood sugar
euglycemia
the process of changing glucose to glycogen
glycogenesis
The process of changing glycogen back to glucose when needed by the body is called _____
glycogenolysis
____ is an indigestible, soluble or insoluble CHO
fiber
Fiber provides no nutritive value to the diet but provides ____, _____, or ____
(terms used interchangeably)
roughage, residue, bulk
____ fiber provides bulk and is the primary source of fiber to increase fecal bulk; is the framework of plants in the form of cellulose
insoluble
_____ fiber absorbs water to form a gel; slows gastric emptying and binds bile acids to cholesterol providing satiety
soluble
_____ is a condition in which the secretion of insulin is impaired or absent making blood glucose excessively high, usually a symptom of DM
hyperglycemia
_____ occurs when blood glucose levels are unusually low, resulting in fatigue, shaking, sweating and headache
hypoglycemia
Digestion of cooked starches begins in the _____
mouth
CHO digestion is completed in the _____ _____ by pancreatic and intestinal enzymes
small intestine
Glucose not needed immediately for energy and not stored by the liver or muscles is stored as ______
adipose
____ are organic compounds not soluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ether or alcohol
lipids
____ constitute the most concentrated source of energy in the diet
fats
It is recommended that fats make up no more than ____% of an individual's caloric intake per day
30
____ carry fat-soluble vitamins and are a necessary part of the cell membrane and myelin sheath
fats
fat is formed by one molecule of ____ being joined to ___ fatty-acid molecules
glycerol
one, two or three
_____ fats are found in butter, oil, and lard
visible
_____ fats are found in meat, cream, avocado, doughnuts, egg yolks, and fried foods
invisible
____ fats are usually solid at room temperature and are considered a "bad" fat
saturated
_____ fats are liquid at room temperature and are usually "plant" fats
unsaturated
____ fats form glycerol esters with one double or triple bond; found in nuts, fowl, olive oil
Monounsaturated
____ fats form glycol esters that have many carbons unbonded to hydrogen atoms; found in cold-water fish, corn, sunflower seeds, soybean cottonseed, safflower oil
polyunsaturated
Omega 3 and 6 are found in _____ fats
polyunsaturated
The most common known fat in the body is ____
triglycerides
____ _____are believed to lower cholesterol and trigylcerides
statin drugs
_____ is stored as body fat
triglycerides
_____ is not a true fat because the body produces it in the liver
cholesteral
Cholesterol is needed in the body to produce _____
hormones
________is a major component of the myelin sheath
Cholesterol
Blood cholesterol should not exceed ____mg
200
Cholesterol is excreted in ____
bile
____ is a natural emulsifier
lecithin
_____ fats are thought to lower the amount of LDL
monounsaturated
The fat alternative ____, sometimes found in snack foods, inhibits vitamin/mineral absorption and can cause diarrhea
Olestra
____ is a fat alternative found in cold food
Simplesse
____ is a CHO based fat alternative made from oat fiber and used as a thickener
Oatrim
Fat is digested slightly in the ____ and mixes well with gastric juices
stomach
_____ emulsifies ingested fat
bile
The best sources of ____ come from animal meat or animal byproducts and complementary plant products
protein
The building blocks of protein are _____ _____
amino acids
There are ____ essential amino acids which the body cannot produce and must be provided in the diet
nine
There are ____ nonessential amino acids
13
A _____ test is done to check whether a newborn baby has the enzyme needed to use phenylalanine in her body.
(an amino acid that is needed for normal growth and development)
phenylketonuria (PKU)
____ is the only nutrient that can build, repair and maintain body tissues
protein
Extra _____ are usually required after surgery or severe burns or during infections to replace lost tissue and manufacture antibodies
proteins
Daily protein requirement is ____g of protein for each kilogram of body weight
0.8
____ are a vital part of enzymes, hormones and blood plasma
proteins
When the body is not getting enough stores of CHO and fat for energy, it will convert protein to glucose in a process called ______
gluconeogenesis
____ is the building up phase of metabolism
anabolism
____ is the breaking down phase of metabolism
catabolism
_____ proteins contain all nine essential amino acids (all animal proteins and soybeans)
complete
____ proteins are found in plant foods that are missing one or more essential amino acids
incomplete
Incomplete proteins should be _____ to form a complementary complete protein (e.g. beans and rice)
combined
Protein is a ____ molecule essential in the osmosis process. Not enough protein in the diet may lead to _____
large
edema
______ is a result of negative protein balance which leads to a dry, dull, shrunken appearance
marasmus
_____ is a result of a negative protein balance which leads to a wet, edemic appearance with lesions and changes in pigmentation
kwashiorkor
A low protein diet may lead to ____ disease
kidney
The end product of the metabolism of amino acids is ______
amonia
Plant proteins which are manufactured into traditional looking "burgers" are called ____
analogs
Protein should make up approximately ___% - ____% of daily caloric intake
15 - 20