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73 Cards in this Set

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5/10 of the leading causes of death in the US have been associated with _____
nutritional problems
ie - CHD, CA, Stroke, DM, atherosclerosis
The US food delivery system is very _____
Foods are transported from farmers using highly scientific _____ and _____
methods and controls
Quality of foods may not be the same r/t freshness. McDonald's burgers are different - quality not branding. Starvation occurs in other countries b/c this is not available. (ex. buying bread in Nigeria)
Searcy water supply
kings' food tasters
Food Rotation:
expiration dates provide food _____
When stores receive merchandise they are supposed to rotate foods to sell older product first with freshest in the back - ex: restocking Frito-Lays
_____ are chemical substances supplied by food that the body needs for growth maintenance and repair.
6 groups of essential nutrients (body doesn't manufacture)
Carbohydrates - CHO - heat/energy
Fats - Lipids - heat/energy
Proteins - build and repair tissue
Minerals - regulate various body processes
vitamins - same as minerals
water - same as minerals
Nonessential Nutrients
Body can make its own
Simple way to remember what nutrients do:
Nutrients serve as:
A source of energy/heat (go)
Support the growth and maintenance of tissue (grow)
Aid or regulate basic body processes (glow)
The sum of physical and chemical changes in the body:
Daily recommended amount 2000 or 2500 calories: percentages of fat, carbs, and protein
fat - 30%
carbs - 60%
protein - 10%
Daily recommended amount:
sat fat
total carb
total fat - 65g/80g
sat fat - 20g/25g
cholesterol - 300mg/300mg
sodium - 2400mg/2400mg
total carb - 300g/375g
fiber - 25g/30g
Recommended dietary allowance
Recommended daily intake
Free, without, no, zero
the product contains only a tiny or insignificant amount of fat, cholesterol, sodium, sugar, and/or calories.
For example: fat free and sugar free contain fewer than 0.5 g per serving. Calorie free has fewer than 5 kcal per serving.
Low-fat means no more than 3 g of fat per serving, low sodium means no more than 140 mg of sodium per serving.
the product contains fewer than 10 g of fat, 4 g of saturated fat, and 95 mg of cholesterol per serving. Lean is not as lean as "low".
Extra Lean
the product has fewer than 5 g of fat, 2 g of sat fat, and 95 mg of cholesterol per serving. Extra Lean is still not as lean as "low".
Reduced, Less, Fewer
means a diet product contains 25% less of a nutrient or calories.
hot dogs might be labeled 25% less fat than our regular hot dogs
a diet product with 1/3 fewer kcal or 1/2 the fat of the original. Light in sodium means a product with 1/2 the usual sodium.
a food in which one serving has at least 10% more of the daily value of a vitamin, mineral, or fiber than usual.
Good Source of
One serving contains 10% to 19% of the daily value for a particular nutrient.
One serving contains 20% or more of the daily value for a particular nutrient.
Trans Fat Free
the product has less than 0.5 g of trans fat and less than 0.5 grams of saturated fat.
the serving does not have more than 60 mg of cholesterol, 3 g of fat, 1 g of saturated fat, 360 mg or less of sodium, and more than 10% of the daily value of vit a, vit c, iron, calcium, protein, or fiber.
consider size of package r/t amount needed and how soon person will utilize it. Also storage space available.
Purchasing large family packs of meat: will individual use it all before it ruins or will they have enough freezer space if freezing it?
Convenience Foods
Can be good and time saving, however, watch for Saturated fats, chol, and Na (canned foods and hamburger helper)
cake mixes, instant puddings, frozen dinners, dessert mixes, brown and serve rolls, canned veggies
Frozen foods
Buy foods in pkgs that can be used at one time or plastic bag that allows the cook to remove only as much as needed. REFREEZING IS DANGEROUS. New manufacturer has label which changes color if item has been thawed/refrozen.
Canned Foods
freeze dried foods which are frozen very rapidly so flavors and textures are not noticeably changed. Canned dehydrated substances which just remove moisture from food.
Generic Brands
No manufacturers name on label. No grade. Lower cost. Economical purchases and good to use.
Ideal bread = walmart bread - walmart just uses water instead of milk, but still made by ideal.
Menu Planning
Economical! List-oriented shopping prevents guessing in store as to what is needed and helps to prevent overspending.
Meal Planning
Meals should be planned 1 x week.
Planning should involve usage of leftovers.
Make a grocery list.
Don't go hungry.
Wise nutritious considerations.
Purchase mixtures instead of premade items - koolaid instead of coke.
Frozen instead of canned.
Responsibilities of the health care professional:
1 - The nurse should identify the patient's nutritional needs by describing the factors that are negatively influencing them or family's ability to have adequate well balanced nutrition.
2 - The nurse needs to know the patient's needs (nutritionally) and the things which affect their nutrition and what is limiting them from having or obtaining a good nutritional status.
Food and Drug Administration - regulates food and drugs to include bottled water.
"Pure Food Law"
1906 - the first food protection law in the US.
Federal food, drug, and cosmetic act
changed to in 1938
amended several times
says food must be pure, safe to eat, prepared under sanitary conditions, and honestly packaged and labeled.
federal trade commission - regulates advertising of food products
United States Department of Agriculture - monitors meats/poultry, fish, crabs, etc. Inspectors examine means/poultry sold for human consumption and the plants in which they are processed.
Environmental Protection Agency - safety standards for tap water in US
Native Americans
approx 1/2 of the edible plants commonly eaten in the US today originated with them - today may be deficient in calcium, vit a and c, and riboflavin.
corn, potatoes, squash, cranberries, pumpkin, peppers, beans, wild rice, and cocoa beans.
US Southern
hot breads (wheat from this area does not make good quality yeast bread). Grits, rice, sweet potatoes, squash, green beans, lima beans, watermelon, oranges, and peaches. Fried fish, bbq and stewed meats and poultry. HIGH in CHO and fat and limited amounts of protein. Iron, calcium, and vit a and c may be deficient.
Beans, rice, chili peppers, tomatoes, and corn meal. Meat is often cooked with a veg. Tortillas. Beans + Corn makes a complete protein. Encourage milk consumption and foods high in vit c.
Puerto Rican
Rice, beans, plantains, tomatoes, and peppers. Bananas, pineapple, mangoes, and papayas, chicken, beef, and pork. Additional milk would make for better balance.
pasta, tomato, fish, cheese. Fish and highly seasoned foods in the south, meat and root veg in the north. Eggs, cheese, tomatoes, green veg, and fruits are excellent sources of nutrients. Added fat free milk and low fat meat would make the diet more complete.
Northern and Western Europe
similar to US midwest - dark breads, potatoes, and fish, fewer green veg salads. Beef and pork are popular, cooked veg, breads, cakes, and dairy products. Addition of fresh veg and fruits would add vit and minerals and fiber to these diets.
Central Europe
potatoes and grain, rye and buckwheat. Pork, cabbage cooked in many ways, carrots, onions, and turnips. Eggs and dairy are abundant. Limiting eggs consumed and using fat free or low fat dairy would reduce the fat content in this diet. Free veg and fruits would increase vit, minerals, and fiber.
Middle Eastern
grains, wheat, and rice. chickpeas (hummus), lamb, yogurt, cabbage, grape leaves, eggplant, tomatoes, dates, olives, and figs. Black, very sweet coffee. Possibly insufficient protein and calcium + fresh fruit and veg.
rice, lightly cooked veg, soybeans, eggs, pork, soy sauce, tea. typically low fat
rice, soybean paste and curd, veg, fruits, and fish. tempura, shoyu, tea. may be deficient in calcium, may have excessive salt.
mostly vegetarians who use eggs and dairy products, rice, peas, and beans. Spices.
Thai, Vietnamese, Laotian, Cambodian
rice, curries, veg, and fruit. metas and fish are used in small amounts, fish sauce. may be deficient in protein and calcium.
Jewish - Kosher
slaughtering must be done by a qualified person in a prescribed manner - meat cannot be prepared with milk - dishes used in the prep and serving of meat must be kept separate from those used for dairy - dairy and meat may not be eaten together - rinse mouth after fish and before meat - may not eat cloven hooved animals, animals that do not chew their cud, hindquarters of any animal, shellfish or fish without scales or fins, birds of prey, creeping things and insects, and leavened bread during passover.
Roman Catholic
no meat on Ash Wed and fridays during Lent
Eastern Orthodox
meat, poultry, fish, and dairy are restricted on wed and fri during lent and advent
Seventh Day Adventists
lacto-ovo veg - no coffee, tea, or alcohol
no coffee, tea, and alcoholic bev
no pork or alcohol, other meats slaughtered according to specific laws, during ramadan fasting during daylight.
most are vegetarians and do not use eggs
Chinese - cultural consideration
eat foods of balance: hot/cold, yin/yang
poverty line is $20,650 per year for a family of 4 in 2007, add $3,480 per person for larger households.
a strong desire for food or for a pleasant sensation based on previous experience that causes one to seek food for the purpose of tasting and enjoying.
Drugs effect appetite
increases - antihistamines, psychotropic (tranquilizers)
decreases - amphetamines, Insulin, alcohol (complications)
taste changes effect appetite
elder often have decrease in appetite r/t decrease in emptying of GI and change in taste bud function
physical changes/problems effect appetite
disease processes, age
biological changes effect appetite
pregnancy, old age, infants, exercise, cancer, diabetes
Increased appetite
food safety
- the longer a food is held at room temp the greater the risk of contamination
- the more people involved in the prep of a menu(food) the greater the likelihood of contamination
- convenience foods are usually preped by multiple persons increasing risk (taco bell)
causes of food borne illness
contamination with harmful microorganisms
s/s gi upset, ha
food borne microorganism sources
cut in hand, head cold, skin infections, simply failing to wash hands, insects, dust, animals, air, humans, water, soil
Botulism -Clostridium botulinum - rarest and most deadly, found in soil and intestinal tract of domestic animals, very resistant to heat, a singe ounce is enough to kill the world
source: can products w/o O2
symptoms: after eaten 4-36 hr dizziness, HA, double vision, paralysis progresses to resp/heart failure, speech difficulty - 65% fatal
prevention: never taste food from a bulging container, never serve home-canned food to institutionalized pts, can food properly, avoid improper home-smoked fish, do not store home smoked fish in plastic bags
Hepatits A
causes: can be found in water that has been contaminated w sewage and in shellfish harvested from fecally contaminated water (fecal/oral) - water, insects and rodents, infected food handlers
symptoms: lead to liver failure/death, decrease blood albumin levels, nausea, HA, fever and fatigue, tender and enlarged liver, anorexia and jaundice, pronounced weight loss.
organism that lives within, upon, or at the expense of a living host without providing any benefit to the host. Several can live in animals used for food by humans