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61 Cards in this Set

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energy balance
1 lb= 3500 cal

fat losses gradual

weight loss = lose SMALL amt of fat, mostly fluid

also lean muscle and bone!
bomb calorimeter
C & H bonds breakdown, heat released

estimate of pot E of foods

overstates E --> body not as effective
weight composition for females
fat 25%
muscle 35%
bone 15%
organs 25%
food intake influences
physiological
senosry
cognitive
postingestive
post absorptive
food intake: physiological influences
hunger
food intake: sensory influences
seek food

start meal
food intake: cognitive influences
continue meal

satiation
food intake: postingestive influences
end meal ---

---
food intake: postabsorptive influences
--------satieity-----
------satiety-----
-satiety--
appetite
don't have hunger but want to eat

stimulators
- stress,
- emotions
-habits
-smell
- social
sustaining satiety
protein > satiety
---carbs, fibers

high fat < satiety --> more unsatisfied w/ small portion
behavior modification
recognize stimulator

what/why you eat

ex: food log
satiation
cognitive influence

fullness, stop eating
satiety
AFTER a meal
hypothalamus
E intake, expend, storage
(other parts: liver, mouth, GI tract)

message central

---neuropeptide y---
components of E expenditure
basal metabolism
thermic affect of food
physical activity
basal metabolism

(BMR)
awake, no food in tummy

< than this = starving

rate of E for dialy functions: breathing, heart

65%

lb
---2.2 * .9/1 * 24
resting metabolic rate
>er than BMR

strict
E expended for phys activity
25% of cals


depends on:
1. muscle mass
2. body lb
3. activity - swimming = less cals burned
E expended for thermic effect of food (TEF)
amt E to digest food

10% of cals

also called 'specific dynamic effect (SDE)' or ' specific dynamic activity (SDA)'
diet induced thermogenesis
TEF + increased overeating

not calc'd into E expend
adapative thermogenesis
adjust E expend due to enviro/physio

enviro: cold
physio: trauma, over eating

not calculated into E expend

brown adipose tissue
---burns more cal's, but who has it?---
what increases BMR?
age

height

growth

body comp (gender)

fever
stress

enviro

smoking

caffeine

hormones can increase OR decrease
what decreases BMR?
caffeine
sleep
malnut/starving
thermogensis
creation of heat

amt of E expended
E requirements based on... (BMR)
gender
growth
age
phys activity
body comp/size
genes
E requirements based on...genes
leptin
---protein -->ed by fat cells that decreases appetite and burn >er cals
E requirements based on genes: gain body fat
blood leptin increases

- hypothalm decreases appetit
- food intake decreases and E expend increase

* - E balance
E requirements based on genes: lose body fat

(regarding blood leptin)
blood leptin increases

- hypothal increases appetite
- food increases
----E expend decreases

* + E balance
BMI
test

takes into account weight and height

weight (lb) * 703
----------------
height (in) squared
healthy BMI
18.5 < x > 24.9

* can be overweight but not overfat
underweight BMI
women:< 18.5
overweight BMI
women :25< x > 30
obese BMI
> 30
problem with obesity
RATE increasing

amt healthy ppl shrinking
weight management
fat cells: bubbles

once you --> cell still with you

*NEVER goes away once you have it, only SHRINKS***
waist circumference
best way to measure fat distribu and abdominal fat
normal waist circumference
M :13-21

-----young-----+ 40---
---->er 22----->er 25---

W: 23-31
-----young------+ 40----
---->er 32----->er 35---
fat distribution...why?
>er importance than total fat

another way to measure fat total...where is it on your body?
lower body fat
>er in women
relatively harmess
visceral fat
also called intradominal fat

fat sored around abdomen, organs

vs. stored under skin (subcutaneous)

not healthy, not eager to move
central obesity
upper body fat

heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, hypertension
methods to measure fat
fatfold measures
hydrodesnitometery
bioelectrical impedence
dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXa)
air displacement pletysmography
methods to measure fat: fatfold measures
caliper

compare to norms
---triceps, back, hip
methods to measure fat: hydrodensitometry
water, in vat

expel O2 from lungs

density displacement
better to know ___ than __?
better to know fat than weight?
methods to measure fat: bioelectrical impedance
lean body = < electrical resistance

must be hydrated--> underestimates

NOT ACCURATE
methods to measure fat: air displacement plethysmography
amt of air displaced

sit in chair
methods to measure fat: dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
precise measure total fat/distribut extreme EXTREME obese places

2 low dose xrays diff among fat-free tissue lean body mass, fat tissue, and bone tissue
health risks associated w/ body weight and body fat: underweight
malnut --> no immunity

cancer --> die of malnut

preggers --> unhealthy baby
---infertility
health risks associated w/ body weight and body fat: overweight
BMI >er 35 twice likely die

whites >er BMI than black ppl

obesity: 2nd kkiller to tobacco related diseasess

yo yo dieting

weight + 20 lbs middle-early adulthood
obesity link to
type 2 diabetes

cardiovvascular disease

cancer
cardiovascular disease
increased blood cholest and hypertension

central obesity
type 2 diabetes
linked to obesity

3X likely to develop in obese

weight >er 10 lbs since 18
---gain---

insulin resistance
cancer
increased level of hormones

linked to obesity?
fat cell theory
how shrink them?

stop +ing cells --> control weight --> DON'T OVEREAT!
hyperplastic
obesity due to # cells
hypertropic
obesity to due _____
set point theory
body has internal mechanism more lean muscle + fat cells = calories needed

inherit # fat/muscle cells

body tends to keep body weight @ same weight, own internal regulator
why some ppl eat alot and still skinny? explained by ___
fat cell theory

set point theory
brown adipose tissue
burns more cals
---but who has it?

adaptive thermogenesis