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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
amino acids
building blocks protein, 22 diff groups, DNA -> RNA
R group
->s unique characteristics:
hydrophobic, philic, neutral
be smart!

beans=incomplete protein

no B-12 - only animals - how cells replicate-eventually die

lactovo (best)
vegan - beans
complete protein
grains + beans
soy = closest to complete
nonessential amino acids
body already makes
essential amino acids
animal prods = all 9

can't use another to make proteins
right amt, alphabet vowel
calculate amt protein need
weight/2.2 * .8
amino acids linked by...
peptide bonds
dipeptide = 2 peptide bonds
need enzymes to break apart peptide bonds
amind acid sequence varies w/ diff proteins
shape ->s task,
globular protein red blood cells, carries O from lungs to cells throughout body
protein denaturation
uncoil and lose shape ->lose ability
can be irrevers
muscle cells
can't add them, only make them bigger
eat enough CARBS
hydrochloric acid -> hydrolysis of proteins, uncoils, activates stomach enzymes

protein-pepsin, HCL-> smaller polypeptides
pancrease and small intenstine
pancreative and SI enzymes proteases divide polypeps further -> tri/dipeps, amino acids

enzymes on surface of SI hydrolyze these peptides to absorb blood carriers in member
what amino acids are absorbed?
peptides, intestinal and tripeptades, dipeptidases
absorption: small intestine
proteins decrease amino acids, once amino acids in side SI -> E before absorp
misconception with enzymes
don't eat enzyme B, predigested proteins (a.a. supplements) NOT easier on body!
in the stomach: hydrochloric acid
-denatures protein structure
-acctivates pepsinogen to pepsin
in the stomach: pepsin
- cleaves proteins to smaller polypeps and some free a.a.'s
- stops pesinogen creation
in the small intestine: enteropeptidase
- changes pancreatic trypsinogen to trypsin
in the small intestine: trypsin
- stops trysinogen creation
- cleaves peptide bonds next to a.a.'s lysin and arginine
- changes pancreatic procarbxypeptidases to carboxypeptidases
- changes pancreative chymotrypsinogen to chymotrypsin
in the small intestine: chymotrypsin
- cleaves peptide bonds next to a.a's penylalanine, tyrosinem, tryptophan, methioninem asparagine, and histidine
in the small intestine: carboxypeptidases
- cleave a.a. from carboxyl ends of polypeptides
in the small intestine: elastase and collagenase
- cleave poplypes into smaller polypeps and tripeps
in the small intestine: intestinal tripeptidases
cleave tripeptides to dipeptides and a.a.'s
in the small intestien: intestinal dipeptidases
glues dipeps to amino acids
in the small intestine: intestinal aminopeptidases
- attaches amino acid amino ends of small poly peps
roles of proteins
- enzymes
-building materials for growth/maintenance
-regulators fluid balance
- buffers
- transporters
- source of E and glucose
- defend v disease
- antibodies defend v. antigens -> immunity
nitrogen equilibrium
N in = N out
- when done w/ growth spurt
positive N balance
N in > N out
negative N balance
-eating incomplete proteins
-using protein for cals
N in < N out
.8 g/kg

weight/2.2 * .8`
protein turnover
proteins continualy made/broken down
amino acid pool
supply of a.a.'s (from food protein or body protein) that collects in cells, circulates blood ready to be used
deanimating proteins
1. striped o N
2. N to urea
3. kidneys filter urea out
4. amino N in pee
5. rest C frags - diff metab pathways
using a.a.s to -> proteins/nonessential a.a.'s
cells make a.a's they need, make it from another a.a. if not the one they need
using a.a.'s to make other compounds
ex: neurotransmitters
using a.a's to make E and glucose
E and glucose
- when no glucose/fatty acids
using a.a.'s to make fat
when E intake and protein > E needs ---weight gain!
protein quality
1. digestibility
2. amino acid composition - essential a.a.'s -> proteins and limited amino acid
3. ability to support growth
high quality protein
have all essential a.a.'s
complementary proteins
combo dietary proteins make up for lack
ex vegetarians
protein digestitbility corrected amino acid score
measure of protein quality
req's for kids and adjusts
what is PEM
defic of protien, E or both
types PEM
acute and chronic
acute PEM
-thin for height
-recent starvation
- leads to Kwashiorkor
chronic PEM
-short for age
-long term hunger
-small kids easy to overlook b/c look normal
- acute PEM
- edema
-swollen belly
- protein defic or disease precips
-18 mos -2 yrs old
- 2nd child comes along --> first kid no more breast milk and gets cereal sub