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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for protein?
What is the energy value for proteins?
4 kcal/gram
Does protein provide energy?
No, only when it absolutely has too
What are the chemical elements of protein?
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen
What are the basic building blocks for protein?
Amino Acids
How many amino acids are there? How many of those are essential?
There are 20 amino acids. 9 of those are essential
What is a peptide?
A protein
What is a dipeptide?
A double protein
What is a tripeptide?
A triple protein
What is a polypeptide?
More than three proteins
What are the functions of proteins? (6)
1. Makes new cells and tissues (growth and maitenance)
2. Replaces damaged cells and tissues (repair)
3. Makes enzymes, hormones, and antibodies
4. Fluid and electrolyte/Acid base balance
5. Systhesizes structural components
6. Helps transport substances around the body
What does the amine group do?
They are the nitrogen containing portion of the amino acid
What is deamination?
It is the removal of the amine group. It is accomplished by the liver after absorption
What is a food allergen?
-substance perceived by the body to be harmful
-causes histamine release, allergic response
-common food allergens are protein containing
What is denaturation?
It is altering the chemical stucture of protein by heat or cold
What is densensitization?
It is slowly increasing the allergen until tolerance is reached
What is your RDA (DRI) for protein?
What is a lacto vegetarian?
They will consume dairy products in addition
What is a lacto ovo vegetarian?
They will consume dairy products as well as eggs in addition
What is a pesco vegetarian
They will consume fish in addition
What is a pollo vegetarian?
They will consume chicken in addition
What is a vegan?
They are strict vegetarians
What are complete proteins? Give examples.
-they contain all the essential amino acids
-they are high quality protein (high bioavailability)
-ex. meat, eggs, and milk products
What are partially complete proteins?
-they lack 1-2 essential amino acids
-they are moderate quality
-ex. legumes, nuts, grains, and seeds
What are incomplete proteins?
-they lack 3 or more essential amino acids
-they are a low quality protein
-ex. vegetables (corn), and gelatin
What is protein complementation?
It is paring, or tripling, up partially complete proteins within the same day. This gives the vegetarian all the essential amino acids
-Mutual supplementation is achieved
Nutrients that are of concern for vegan children (Nutrients they do not get enough of)
Vitamin D, Calcium, Iron, and Zinc
Positive Nitrogen Balance
Protein (nitrogen intake) is greater than protein excretion
Nitrogen Balance
Protein (nitrogen intake) is equal to the protein excretion
Negative Nitrogen Balance
Protein (nitrogen intake) is less than protein excretion
What is Marasmus?
It is a deficiency of both kilocalories and protein
What is Kwashiokor?
It is a deficiency of protein
Name 5 facts about amino acid supplements
-The body is designed to handle whole proteins
-Excess of a single aa can cause health hazards
-Excess of one aa can tie up carriers causing disturbance in absorption
-No upper tolerable level yet set for aa supplements
-Long term use is not recommended
6 problems with excessive protein intake
-Excessive saturated fat and cholesterol intake
-Kidney strain
-Increased risk of kidney stones
-Urinary loss of calcium
-Adipose tissue gain
What is too much protein?
-2.0 grams or more/kg body weight