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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Most common sites for bone fractures in individuals with osteoporosis
vertabral column, wrist, hip
Primary osteoporosis cause
estrogen deficiency
What is the most common medication induced form of secondary osteoporosis?
glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis
What diseases can cause secondary osteoporosis?
7)alcoholism, MS, etc.
What are the major risk factors for osteoporosis?
2)estrogen depletion
One cup of milk provides how much calcium
Recommended calcium intake levels for the following:
adolescents 9-18 yo
adults 19-50
adults >50
pregnant/nursing <19 yo
pregnant/nursing 19-50 yo
Potential problems associated with calcium carbonates use include...
1)GI discomfot/constipation
2)poor absorption in absence of stomach acid (achlorhydria)
What types of calcium supplements are more soluble and may be more suitable for individuals with achlorhydria?
phosphate and citrate salts of calcium
proportion of calcium contained in carbonate supplements, phosphate preparations, and citrate prepartions
40%; 17%; 24%
how much daily exposure to sunlight is needed to acheive sufficient synthesis of vitamin D?
5-15mins during 10am-3pm
Data tend to support the idea that _______ intake is associated with increased BMD and decreased risk of fractures
high protein
MOA of protein in increasing BMD and decreasing fracture risk
1)amino acids-enhance absorption of calcium from GI tract
2)increaed IGF-1-promotes bone formation
3)decrease in urinary N-telopeptide-marker of bone resorption
There has been some concerns expressed that consumption of large amounts of ______ may detrimentally affect male fertility.
soy isoflavones
This is essential for post-translational modification of a group of bone associated proteins termed "bone GIa proteins" including OSTEOCALCIN
Vitamin K
Results from several different types of studies tend to suggest a detrimental effect of _________ on bone health.
vitamin A (retinol)
_____ has a calciuretic effect (increases calcium loss in the urine)
Sodium (in the form of salt)
Effect of dietary sodium on calcium homeostatsis
1)adequate dietary calcium intake = adaptive increase in calcium absorption from intestine
2)lower calcium intake = increased bone resorption due to not being fully compensated for
Adequate intake of _______ can offset the salt-induced calciuresis
Detrimental effects of this include increased hepatic conversion of estradiol to inactive metabolites, earlier menopause, decreased absorption of calcium from the intestine, altered vitamin D metabolism, and direct toxic effects on bone cells
Effect of alcohol on BMD
1)moderate alcohol consumption has been associated w/ increased BMD
2)chronic alcohol abuse suppresses bone formation by inhibiting osteoblast function
______ and ______ seem to have little effect on bone health in healthy women.
pregnancy and lactation
The effects of _______ on bone health are currently uncertain
oral contraceptives
Although estrogen replacement therapy is effective in preventing loss of bone-mass, the results from studies demonstrating what limit its potential usefullness in the prevention of osteoporosis?
heart disease, coagulopathy, dementia
Naturally occuring compounds that exhibit similar SERM activity as raloxifene
genistein found in soybeans and soy products
MOA of bisphosphonates
1)bind to hydroxyapatite crystals in bone w/ high affinity which inhibits bone resorption
2)also thought to have a direct inhibitory effect on osteoclast activity
This is a peptide hormone that inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption
This agent promotes synthesis of new bone and reduces risk for fractures in postmenopausal women
teriparatide (injectable form of human parathyroid hormone)