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154 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the science of the interactions between living organisms and food
nutrition
chemical substances in foods that are used by the body for growth and health
nutrients
function of nutrients
provide energy
provide structure
regulation of body processes
substances required for growth and health that cannot be produced by the body or are produced in limited amounts
essential nutrients
substances required for growth and health that can be produced by the body from other components in the diet
nonessential nutrients
nutrients needed in the body in large amounts (measured in grams) everyday
macronutrients
types of macronutrients
carbohydrates
fats
proteins
nutrients needed in the body in small amounts (measured in milligrams and micrograms) may not be needed in the body everyday
micronutrients
types of micronutrients
vitamins and minerals
what type of nutrient is water considered
an essential nutrient
energy a carbohydrate yields
4 kcal per gram
energy a protein yields
4 kcal per gram
energy a fat yields
9 kcal per gram
main source of fuel for the body
carbohydrate
storage form of glucose
glycogen
where is glycogen stored
in muscles and the liver
what happens if glycogen stores are over what the body needs
the remainder is converted to fat and stored as adipose tissue under the skin
best source of complex CHO
grains
best source of simple CHO
sugar
best source of fiber
whole grains
fruits
veggies
nutrient that builds and repairs
proteins
composition of proteins
amino acids made of C,H,O, and N
high quality proteins
animal based
low quality proteins
plant based
proteins that provide all the essential amino acids and examples
complete proteins
milk
cheese
meat
eggs
soybeans
how to make a complete protein from plant proteins
grains and legumes
legumes and seeds
function of fat in the body
energy
healthy skin and nails
regulate body temp
protect organs
saturated fat
solid at room temperature and when chilled
example of saturated fat
butter
example of monounsaturated fat
olive
canola
peanut
example of polyunsaturated fat
corn
safflower
sunflower
type of fat that may prevent blood clots, lower blood pressure and increase hdl cholesterol
omega 3 fatty acid
how trans fats are produced
hydrogenation
chemical substances that perform specific functions in the body yet are non energy yielding
vitamins
fat soluble vitamins
A
D
E
K
water soluble vitamins
B vitamins
C
elements found in foods that perform specific functions in the body yet yield no energy
minerals
sources of vitamins
grains, fruits, veggies
sources of minerals
milk
dark and leafy veggies
meat
examples of major minerals
calcium
phosphorous
sodium
potassium
magnesium
chloride
sulfur
examples of trace minerals
iron
zinc
iodine
copper
what % of an adult's body is water
60%
function of water in the body
maintain body temp
aids in waste excretion
medium by which most chemical reactions take place
How do water losses occur
perspiration
urination
exhalation
water needs per day male and female
male - 12 cups
female - 9 cups
how can poor nutritional status occur?
inadequate and excessive levels of nutrient intake
dietary intake level of a nutrient needed to meet the requirement of nearly all the healthy population of individuals of a particular age and sex
RDA
recommended dietary allowance
the average requirement of a nutrient intake value that is estimated to meet the requirements of 1/2 the healthy individuals in a life stage and gender group
EAR
estimated average requirement
the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population
UL
tolerable upper intake level
a recommended daily intake value based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people that are assumed to be adequate (used when an RDA cannot be determined)
AI
adequate intake
the key to a healthy diet
adequacy and balance
reference values used for planning and assessing the diets of healthy people
DRI
dietary reference intake
sector of the government responsible for monitoring the status of food and nutrition related concerns in the US
USDA and dept. of health and human services
prerequisite to planning for the prevention or solution of nutrition related health problems
nutritional assessment
nutrition at the tissue level
builds and maintains body tissues
goal of nutrition screening
to identify individuals who may benefit from assessment and intervention
a process or series of measurements used to identify individuals at nutritional risk
nutrition assessment
clinical assessment
visual inspection
dietary assessment
estimating the individuals overall diet
anthropometric assessments
measurements such as weight and height
biochemical assessment
nutrient and enzyme levels, DNA, albumin
The nutrition care process
assess
analyze
plan
implement
evaluate
document
What enhances the likelihood of conception and helps ensure a healthy pregnancy and robust newborn?
optimal nutrition status prior to pregnancy
how does chronic undernutrition affect fertility?
it decreases it by only a small amount
major effect of chronic undernutrition on reproduction in women
birth of small and frail infants who have a high likelihood of death in first year
how does undernutrition in previously well-fed women affect reproduction
dramatic decline in fertility which returns when food intake increases
how does acute reduction in food consumption decrease reproductive capacity?
women - modifies hormonal signals that regulate the menstrual cycle
men - impairs sperm maturation
when a woman of normal weight loses 10-15% of their normal body weight, what may happen?
amenorrhea due to decrease in estrogen
recommended treatment for weight-related amenorrhea
weight gain
when a man of normal weight loses 10-15% of their normal body weight, what may happen?
sperm viability and motility may be reduced
what happens when a man of normal weight loses 25% of their normal body weight?
sperm production may cease
how does extremely high levels of exercise affect reproduction?
it may interrupt normal menstrual cycles
effect of vegetarian diet on reproduction
low levels of estrogen which may result in irregular periods and sporadic ovulation
effect of high levels of caffeine on reproduction
may increase the time it takes for a woman to become pregnant
how does alcohol affect fertility?
decreases estrogen (disrupting menstrual cycle) and testosterone
how do low levels of zinc affect male fertility
decrease in semen volume and testosterone
zincs role in reproduction
enzyme cofactor for testosterone, DNA replication, protein synthesis, and cell division
how do low levels of antioxidants affect reproduction in males?
sperm are very susceptible to oxidative damage. Antioxidants can help protect the sperm to ensure motility and function
how does heavy metal exposure affect reproduction in males?
decrease sperm production due to disruption of hormonal communications with the testes
how do pesticides affect reproduction in males?
decrease sperm count
male infertility
how does heat affecting the scrotum and testes affect fertility?
reduce sperm count
how does steroid abuse affect male fertility?
shrinks the testicles, eliminates sperm, decreases libido
early pregnancy nutritional concerns
weight
nutrient status
alcohol
diabetes
fetal development before a woman even knows she is pregnant
will have grown from a single cell to millions of cells
basic organs will have formed
how does being underweight prior to conception affect a pregnancy?
increases the risk of maternal complications, and delivery of small and premature infants
how does being overweight prior to conception affect a pregnancy?
increases the risk of clinical complications as well as delivery of newborns with NTD or excess body fat
how does insufficient folate affect a pregnancy
risk of neural tube defects
how does excessive vitamin A affect a pregnancy
risk of facial and heart abnormalities
how does high maternal lead levels affect a pregnancy
risk of mental retardation of offspring
how does iodine deficiency affect a pregnancy
risk of impaired mental and physical development
how does iron deficiency affect a pregnancy
risk of early delivery and the baby developing iron deficiency
how does alcohol affect a pregnancy
increased risk of FAS which include impaired mental and physical development
how does diabetes affect a pregnancy?
risk of fetal malformations, excessive infant size, and the offspring developing diabetes later in life
what is the major source of research information on the role of nutrition in human reproduction?
the 1970 national research council report - Maternal Nutrition and the course of pregnancy
result of nutrition being poor in the last part of the pregnancy
growth is negatively affected
result of nutrition being poor in the first part of the pregnancy
development and survival affected
the size of an infant is affected by the size of which parent
the mother
weight gain distribution during pregnancy
less than half - fetus, placenta, amniotic fluid
remainder - maternal reproductive tissues, fluid, blood, and stores.
what hormone is responsible for the deposition of fat as a caloric reserve for pregnancy and lactation
progesterone
what accounts for sudden weight gain during the first half of pregnancy?
excess fluid (up to 9L can be normal)
what might be the diagnosis of sudden weight gain after the 20th week
preeclampsia
a potentially dangerous condition that develops late in pregnancy. Signs include high blood pressure, fluid retention, abnormal weight gain, protein in the urine. May lead to convulsions
preeclampsia
what has excessive weight gain during pregnancy been linked to?
greater risk for hypertension, c-section, and struggle with weight later in life
risk of exceeding 35% of body weight during pregnancy
hypertension, gestational diabetes, increased urinary tract infections, difficult labors
which costs more? Caring for low birth weight babies or providing nutrition education?
caring for LBW babies (5 to 1)
the amount of a nutrient that is estimated to meet the requirements of half all healthy individuals in a population
EAR
estimated average requirement
used when an RDA for a nutrient is not available. It is the recommended daily intake that is based on observed approximations of nutrient intake
AI
adequate intake
the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population
UL
tolerable upper intake level
a set of 4 nutrient based reference values intended primarily for use in assessing and planning diets
DRI
dietary reference intakes
extra daily energy requirements in the second and third trimester of pregnancy
300 calories
non pregnancy RDA for protein
50 g/day
pregnancy RDA for protein
60 g/day
risk of low protein intake during pregnancy
decreased birthweight
functions of folate in the body
protein tissue construction
cell division
reduction of NTD
one of the first signs of folate deficiency
megaloblastic anemia caused by the production of abnormal red blood cells
population at risk for B12 deficiency
strict vegetarians
recommended supplementation of B12 for strict vegetarians
2 mcg per day
function of B12 in the body
cell division
what does b12 deficiency lead to?
megaloblastic anemia
functions of B6
amino acid metabolism
formation of hormones important in brain function
maintaining Na and K balance
reason B6 needs increase during pregnancy
greater needs for amino acids for growth
converting tryptophan to niacin
BG deficiency in pregnancy may lead to
lower APGAR scores
deficiency of Vitamin C during pregnancy has been related to
premature rupture of membranes
preeclampsia
recommendations for vitamin C during pregnancy
extra 10 mg/day
effect of excess vitamin C during pregnancy
fetal dependency and rebound scurvy during neonatal period
three vitamins that are part of the reactions that produce energy
thiamin, riboflavin, niacin
functions of Vitamin D in the body
calcium and phosphorous absorption
bone and teeth formation
what is supplementation of vitamin D during the 3rd trimester associated with
improved maternal weight gain
lower % of SGA infants
reduced incidence of hypocalcemia
result of excess vitamin D during pregnancy
infant hypercalcemia
symptoms of infant hypercalcemia
confusion
anorexia
abdominal pain
muscle pain
weakness
role of vitamin A in the body
reproduction
immunity
vision
maintenancy of cellular differentiation
recommendations for vitamin A intake during pregnancy
no increase in RDA
what has excess vitamin A been linked to
increased risk of birth defects during the first trimester
function of iron in the body
manufacturing Hgb in maternal and fetal RBC
when does the fetus accumulate iron
during last trimester
common cause of iron deficiency in a newborn
prematurity
one of the only instances where a fetus will draw from maternal stores to meet its own needs
iron
can iron needs during 2nd and 3rd trimester be met through diet alone
no
recommended iron supplementation during 2nd and 3rd trimester
30 mg/day
adverse affects of iron deficiency during pregnancy
increased cardiac output
fatigue
when are fetus demans for calcium greatest
3rd trimester
how much calcium does the fetus draw from maternal blood
250 - 300 mg per day
calcium recommendations during pregnancy
1200 mg/day
reason for increased calcium needs during pregnancy
support skeletal and tooth growth
what does calcium-phosphorous balance relate to
neuromuscular action
where is the majority of magnesium stored
in the bone
result of magnesium deficiency
tremors and convulsions (leg cramps)
function of zinc in the body
component of insulin
helps maintain acid-base balance in tissues
acts in the synthesis of DNA and RNA
What may result from zinc deficiency during pregnancy
congenital malformation
the most common preventable cause of mental deficit in the world
iodine deficiency
what is the result of iodine deficiency
goiter
hypothyroidism
cretinism
result of maternal hypothyroidism
increased risk of stillbirth and cretinism
does dietary restriction of na prevent preeclampsia
no
result of sodium restriction during pregnancy
reduced fat, calcium, and protein intake
limit weight gain
reduce maternal fat stores