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58 Cards in this Set

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Minerals make up about how many pounds of adult body weight?
5 pounds
What two minerals make up 75% of total mineral weight?
Calcium & phosphorus
How much calcium phosphate is stored in bones?
99%
What are calcium phosphate crystals called?
Hydroxyapatite
At what age does bone mass reduce?
20
At what age does bone density start to decrease?
40
In women more; leads to osteoporosis.
What 3 ways can the body conserve blood calcium?
increase absorption, decrease excrection, dismantling bone
Takes place in the intestines kidneys, and bones.
Where is the other 1% of calcium stored?
Body fluids
regulates ion transport across cell membranes, essential for nerve transmission and muscle contraction, maintains blood pressure, aids in blood clotting.
What do oxalates bind to thus decreasing absorbtion of these minerals?
Calcium, iron, potasium, magnesium, sodium
Found in tea, berries, collards, okra, spinich, dark soda.
High risk for kidney stones.
What do phytates bind to thus decreasing absorbtion of these minerals?
Calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc
Found in whole grains, kidney & pinto beans.
Where are tannins found?
Red wine, tea (black, green or white)
Binds to calcium thus decreasing absorbtion.
What are the top 2 calcium sorces?
Milk & dark green vegetables.
How much calcium comes from 3oz of sardines?
325mg
Calcium comes from the tiny bones.
How much calcium comes from 8oz of milk/dairy?
300mg
How much calcium comes from .5 cup of tofu?
275mg
How much calcium comes from 1oz of cheddar cheese?
200mg
How much calcium comes from 1 cup of turnip greens?
200mg
How much calcium comes from 1 cup of broccoli?
60mg
Why is osteoporosis a higher risk for women with age?
Decrease in estrogen causes bone loss
Whate are some ways to prevent osteoporosis?
Dietary calcium, vitamin D, estrogen, physical activity, heredity
There are 5.
What are some negative things that could lead to osteoporosis?
Sodium, protein, alcohol, caffeine, smoking
There are 5
What is the 2nd most abundant mineral in the body?
Phosphorus
85% of phosphorus is found where?
Bone & teeth
What are some functions of phosphorus?
Buffers blood pH level, carries stores and releases energy (ATP), part of DNA & RNA, assists in enzyme function, makes up phohpolipids which occur in cell membrane.
What are 3 sources of phosphorus?
Meats, dairy, legumes
Where is magnesium found?
50% in bones. 50% in muscle, liver, heart
What food sources have magnesium?
Oysters, spinach, dairy, legumes
There are 4
What are major minerals?
Cannot be produced by the body and are needed in high quantities.
What are trace minerals?
Needed by body in small quantites.
When aiding in nerve transmission calcium have a pos (+) or neg (-) charge?
Positive
What hormone organ maintains bone health?
Parathyroid
How much calcium is absorbed from milk?
30%
Which can be destroyed by heat: vitamins or minerals?
Vitamins, but minerals can be processed out.
How much calcium do infants/children/pregnant women consume?
50-60% of calcium in their diet.
Healthy adults absorb how much calcium?
25%
What are the 7 major minerals?
Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulfur
What are the 9 trace minerals?
Iodine, iron, zinc, selenium, fluoride, chromium, copper, molybdenum, magnese
Iodine is a component of what hormone?
thyroxine in the thyroid.
Goiter is a deficiency associated with what mineral?
Iodine
symptoms: sluggishness, sensitivity to cold, weight gain.
What is the function of myoglobin?
Carries & stores oxygen for muscles.
What is the function of hemoglobin?
Oxygen carrier in red blood cells.
Where is iron stored?
In bone marrow
Iron is difficult to excrete, refused by body.
What is Iron's primary function?
Iron delivers oxygen to cells.
Iron is an oxidant and can cause oxidative damage.
What does Iron bind to?
Carbon & hydrogen (which are by-products in energy production).
Where is most iron found?
Hemoglobin
What is the #1 deficiency worldwide?
Iron deficiency
symptoms: weakness, headaches, pallor, intolerance to cold, apathy, inattentiveness, pica
What are some causes of iron deficiency?
Decreased dietary intake, impared absorption, bleeding.
What are the sources of iron toxicity?
Liver, red meat, fish, fortified grains, spinach(poorly absorbed), iron skillet (30%)
What does heme mean?
Meat
Non-heme means plants
How much iron is absorbed from diet?
10-15%
What factors increase iron absorption?
low body stores, heme iron (meat), MFP factor (meat), genetic defect, Vit C (3x non-heme absorption)
What are some functions of zinc?
Regulates DNA transcription/translation, assists immune function, promotes wound healing, affects behavior and ability to learn, increases taste perception, promotes growth & development kids
Zinc works enzymes to:
Make DNA & hemoglobin, helps pancreas with digestion process, releases Vit A from storage in liver, dispose of free radicals
What are some factors of zinc absorption?
Impared immunity, abnormal taste with poor appetite, poor growth, abnormal night vision, poor wound healing
Absorption affected by fiber & phytate.
What are some sources of zinc?
Steak, enriched cereals, yogurt, pork, shrimp, oysters ( 3oz get 2x amount u need)
What are 3 antioxidants?
Vit C, Vit E, Glutathione
Prevents free radical formation & oxidative damage.
What are some sources of selenium?
Meat, shellfish, vegetables depending on soil, whole grains.
Activates thyroid hormone.
What is primary function & source of fluoride?
Strong teeth, found in drinking water
Can survive without fluoride.