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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the leading cause of death and permanent disability in the US?
Cardiovascular Disease
What is the difference between arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis?
• Arteriosclerosis » a generic term for several diseases in which the arterial wall becomes thickened and looses elasticity

• Atherosclerosis » a form of arteriosclerosis characterized by patch subintimal thickening of medium & large arteries
What are the ATP III classifications of LDL cholesterol?
• < 100: Optimal
• 100-129: near optimal/above optimal
• 130-159: borderline high
• 160-189: high
• > 190: very high
What are ATP III classifications for total cholesterol?
• < 200: desirable
• 200-239: borderline high
• > 240: high
What are the ATP III classifications of HDL cholesterol?
• < 40: low
• > 60: high
What are major risk factors for CHD?
• age (men > 45; women > 55)
• cigarette smoking
• family history of premature CHD (in male 1º relative < 55 y/o; in female 1º relative < 65 y/o)
• HTN (BP > 140/90 or on anti-HTN meds)
• low HDL
What are side effects of statins?
• myopathy
• increased liver enzymes
What are contraindications of statins?
• Absolute: active or chronic liver disease
What are side effects of bile acid sequestrants?
• GI distress
• Constipation
• Decreased absorption of other drugs
What are contraindications of bile acid sequestrants?
• Absolute: dysbetalipoproteinemia; TG > 400 mg/dl

• Relative: TG > 200 mg/dl
What are side effects of Nicotinic Acid?
• Flushing
• Hyperglycemia
• Hyperuricemia
• Hepatoxicity
• Upper GI distress
What are contraindications of Nicotinic Acid?
• Absolute: chronic liver disease, severe gout

• Relative: DM, hyperuricemia, PUD
What are side effects of Fibric Acid derivatives?
• Dyspepsia
• Gallstones
• Myopathy
What are contraindications for Fibric Acids?
severe renal and hepatic disease
Patients on simvastatin (Zocor) should avoid what specific food?
grapefruit and its juice
What are characteristics of the metabolic syndrome?
• abdominal obesity
• elevated triglycerides
• elevated fasting blood glucose
• low HDL
What is the Food & Nutrition Board recommendation for daily sodium intake?
no more than 2400 mg/day (equals 1 tsp of table salt)
What are symptoms of diabetes?
• polyuria
• polydipsia
• polyphagia
• weight loss
• fatigue
What are the #1 and #2 causes of blindness in the US?
• Diabetic retinopathy (#1)
• Macular degeneration (#2)
What week of pregnancy dose gestational diabetes usually occur?
between 24-28 weeks
How should exercise be incorporated into the lifestyle of a diabetic patient?
• Type I: exercise can complicate glucose control; should be done on a regular basis and be considered carefully as meals are planned to avoid hypoglycemia

• Type II: exercise is very beneficial (helps imrove weight control, glucose level, and the cardiovascular system)
What are symptoms of hypoglycemia?
• blurred vision
• confusion
• eventual unconsicousness
• headache
• poor coordination
• tremors
What are symptoms of uremia?
• coma
• convulsions
• headache
• nausea
True/False: Patients with renal disease should have an increased protein intake
• Protein increases the amount of nitrogen waste the kidneys must handle
• Protein intake should be limited

• The correct answer is: False
Why may a dialysis patient require additional protein?
protein is lost during the dialysis process
A typical renal diet could be written as "80-3-3." What does that mean?
80 g protein, 3 g sodium, 3 g potassium daily
What is the most common type of kidney stone?
Calcium Oxalate stones
How should calcium intake be adjusted to decrease the risk of calcium oxalate stones?
• higher dietary calcium intake decreases the incidence of renal stones for most people

• dietary calcium remains in the gut where it binds to oxalate

• bound oxalate cannot be absorbed (so it never enters the bloodstream or the kidneys to cause stones) and is excreted in the feces
What foods should be restricted for a patient with uric acid stones?
Purine-rich foods (ex. meats, fish, poultry, organ meats, anchovies, etc.)
What are characteristics of Struvite stones?
• 2nd most common (10-15%)

• composed of ammonium, magnesium, & phosphate

• develop following UTI infections

• can develop into jagged structure called "Staghorn" calculus