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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the calorie requirement for an infant in their 1st year?
100 kcal/kg/day
Why is breastfeeding good?
• provides infant w/ temporary immunity to many infectious disease

• economical, nutritionally adequate, sterile, and easily digested

• studies suggest that breast-fed infants grow more rapidly and have fewer infections
How often should breastfeeding occur?
• every 2 hours in the first few weeks

• infant should nurse 10-15 min on each breast
What are indications of adequate nutrition for an infant?
• infant has 6 or more wet diapers per day

• infant has normal growth

• infant has 1 or 2 mustard-colored bowel movements per day
True/False: Infants under one year should not be given cow's milk
Why should infants under one year not be given cow's milk?
• receive inadequate amounts of Vit E, iron, & essential fatty acids

• receive excessive amounts of protein, sodium, & potassium

• whole cow's milk protein and fat are difficult to digest and absorb for an infant
Infants should be limited to breast milk or formula until what age?
4 - 6 months
When can solid foods be introduced to an infant?
4 - 6 months and should be done gradually
What can happen if an infant is introduced to solid food before 4 months?
may stimulate the development of food allergies
What are adverse effects of giving cow's milk to an infant under 1 year old?
• Excessive renal solute load
• GI blood loss
• Iron deficiency anemia (due to low iron content & GI bleed)
Why should honey never be given to an infant?
it could be contaminated with Clostridium botulinum bacteria
When does the sucking reflex develop?
34 weeks
What are characterisitcs of Cystic Fibrosis?
• a hereditary disorder characterized by lung congestion & infection
• malabsorption of fat by the pancreas
How should diet be adjusted for a patient with Cystic Fibrosis?
• 35-40% of diet should be from fat
• take the digestive enzymes in pill form
• night time tube feedings may be indicated
How is failure to thrive determined in an infant?
determined by plotting the height and weight of the infant on a growth chart
What are causes of failure to thrive in an infant?
• child abuse
• congenital abnormalities
• lack of bonding
• malnutrition
• neglect
• poverty
What is galactosemia?
• a condition in which there is a lack of the liver enzyme transferase (which converts galactose to glucose)

• causes toxic levels of galactose to accumulate in the blood
What can galactosemia cause?
• abnormal liver function
• cataracts
• diarhhea
• edena
• galactosuria
• mental retardation
• vomiting
What is the treatment for galactosemia?
• diet therapy (exclusion of anything containing milk from any mammal)

• nutritional supplements (Ca, vit D, riboflavin)
What is Phenylketonuria (PKU)?
• lack the liver enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (which metabolizes phenylalanine)

• infants appear normal at birth, but can develop seizures, are hyperactive, and become mentally retarded between 6-18 months
How do you treat a patient with Phenylketonuria (PKU)?
• restrict high protein & starchy foods
• commercial formula "Lofenalac"
• synthetic milk for older children
• avoidance of phenylalanine
What are characteristics of anorexia nervosa?
• a psychological disorder that causes a drastic reduction in kcal, disrupting metabolism

• an inordinate fear of being fat
What can anorexia nervosa cause?
• amenorrhea
• brain damage
• death
• hair loss
• low BP
• weakness
What can bulemia cause?
• dehydration
• dental caries
• electrolyte imbalance
• erosion of the teeth
• irritation of the esophagus
• malnutrition
What are the effects of alcohol on metabolism?
• affects absorption and normal metabolism of glucose, fats, proteins, & vitamins

• lack of absorption niacin and thiamin prohibit the cells from using glucose for energy

• causes the kidneys to excrete larger than normal amounts of water, resulting in loss of minerals
What are physiological problems associated with marijuana?
• breathing problems
• changes in the reproductive organs
• coordination becomes worse
• headache
• nausea
• reduced blood flow to the brain
• tremors
What is the protein requirement for an adult?
0.8 g/kg of body weight
What is the current requirement for calcium for adults?
1000 mg for 19-50 y/o
What is the Vit D requirement for an adult?
5 µg/day
A patient taking tetracycline should not ingest what type of food?
dairy products should not be consumed within two hours of taking tetracycline or it will not be absorbed
A patient taking anticoagulants should not take what vitamins?
Vit C and E (antioxidants) because they thin the blood
How do calorie requirements change with age?
• kcal requirement decreases 2-3% per decade because metabolism slows and activity is reduced

• have to eat less as you get older