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39 Cards in this Set

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Name the nutrients required by the body
Carbohydrates
Fats (lipids)
Proteins
Vitamins
Minerals
Water
What are the 2 major sources of energy?
Carbohydrate and fat but protein becomes major fuel when others are not available
which nutrient facilitates the release of energy?
Vitamins
which nutrient regulates the release of energy?
Minerals
what are the 4 basic units of energy and where do they come from?
From carbohydrates: glucose
From lipids: glycerol
From lipids: fatty acids
From protein: amino acids
what is the recommended ADA of CHO, Lipids, Protein?
CHO= 55%
Lipids= 30%
Protein 15%
Is protein stored in the body?
NO
Glucose is produced from?
carbohydrates
proteins
fat
Dietary carbohydrates include?
Simple sugars
Complex carbohydrates (starches)
Indigestible carbohydrates (fiber)
What is the main source of energy?
Lipids
which nutrient provides more kcal/grm?
Fat supplies 9 kcal/gm
as compared to 4 kcal/gm for glucose & protein
What is the function of proteins?
Proteins do the cells work. The energy to fuel that work comes from carbohydrates and fat.
Name the essential amino acids
Phenylalanine
Histidine
Isoleucine
Leucine
Lusine methionine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Valine
what is the waste product of protein metabolism?
The waste product is NH3 (ammonia) (Kreb’s cycle)
what causes acidosis & ketones
starvation where both proteins & fats are metabolized
What are the functions of Vit: ADEK
Vitamin A:
Stored in liver
Healthy skin and mucous membrane, vision in dim light
Vitamin D:
calcium and health bone
Vitamin E:
protection of cells
Vitamin K: Blood clotting
what is Niacin used for?
↓ total cholesterol

Side effects: flushing, GI reflux
Acne treatment vitamin
Vitamin A
Vitamin that < CAD
Vit E
main electrolyte affected in water intoxication
Sodium: Hyponatremia
what is Scurvy?
Def. of Ascorbic acid(Vit C)-leads to the formation of liver spots on the skin, spongy gums, and bleeding from all mucous membranes.
Thiamin deficiency causes these conditions
Beriberi

Wet (CV) vs. dry (Neuro - wernicke-korsakoff)
Cause of Pellagra
Triad: Dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia
Niacin deficiency
what is the triad for pellagra
Dermatitis
Diarrhea
Dementia
Cause of Rickets
Vit D def.
This vitamin deficiency may cause blindness; Xerophthalmia (dry eyes)
Vitamin A deficiency
Swollen abdomen, "bull dog" face from protein def.
Kwashiorkor
Calcium and Vit D def. can cause?
Osteoporosis
Osteomalacia
which vit def. causes glossitis
folic acid
which vit def. causes lesions at corners of the mouth?
Riboflavin (B2)
Chvostek sign, Trousseau sign is causes by which vit def.?
Calcium
What is Whipple's disease?
Causes malabsorption: Weight loss, incomplete breakdown of carbohydrates or fats are common presenting symptoms. Also affects the immune system, joints, CNS, and cardiovascular system.
what is the sudan stain test used for?
In malabsorption to determine the level of fecal fat to diagnose steatorrhea.
Schilling's test
Vit B12 def. (pernicious anemia)
What is Celiac Sprue?
Sensitivity caused by gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, oats, and barley
what part of the intestine does celiac sprue mostly affect?
Proximal portion of the small bowel
how do you Dx celiac sprue?
small bowel biopsy

Tx with a gluten free diet
this disease has overgrowth of coliform bacteria in jejunum and the villi are flattened, making absorption difficult
tropical sprue
how do you treat Whipple's disease?
penicillin
tetracycline