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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Approximately 99% of all carcinogens present in the diet are either _______ components of various food items or are produced during ________.
naturally occurring; food preparation
Phytochemical found in nutmeg, mace, pepper, cinnamon
phytochemical found in mushrooms
phytochemical found in herbal teas containing comfrey
pyrrolizidine alkaloids
phytochemical found in apples, pears, plums, cherries
caffeic acid
phytochemical found in carrots, parsnips, celery, parsley
mycotoxin found in moldy cereals (corn), peanuts, and seeds
Ingestion of aflatoxin can result in ______
liver cancer
When are heterocyclic amines (HCAs) formed?
during frying, grilling, and charring of high-protein foods
When are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed?
when meat or fish are cooked over an open flame (charcoal grilling)
When are N-Nitroso compounds formed?
found in smoked and cured meats and fish, and in salted, and pickled vegetables
Formation of endogenous N-nitroso compounds is inhibited by _____?
ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
What type of non-nutrient phytochemical may possess estrogen mimetic capabilities?
Potent antioxidant that scavenges free radicals and has been shown to inhibit xanthine oxidase, an intracellular enzyme capable of generating free radicals
Antioxidant that exhibits other potentially important anti-cancer effects including protein phosphorylation, inhibition of topoisomerase activity, antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis
Polyphenolic antioxidants found in highest concentrations in GREEN TEA
catechins (epicatechin, etc..)
The concentration of ____ in black tea is significantly lower than that in green tea
______ has a catechin concentration intermediate between that of green and black teas
Oolong tea
Found in high concentrations in GARLIC
Allyl sulfides
Found in high concentrations in CRUCIFEROUS VEGETABLES (broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprouts)
Isothiocyanates (+ dithiocyanates)
Whole intact garlic cloves contain what two major sulfur compounds?
glutamyl cysteine, alliin
Processing of garlic (by crushing, cutting, chewing, etc.) releases _________, a vacuolar enzyme, that converts alliin to allicin
Allicin is extremely ______, and rapidly decomposes to a mixture of lipid-soluble organosulfur compound including ______.
unstable, diallyl disulfide
______ (water-soluble) is formed by a separate pathway during processing
S-allyl cysteine (SAC)
Studies suggest an inverse relationship between consumption of ________ and the incidence of both ______ and _______ cancers
raw/cooked garlic, stomach and colorectal
Potential biochemical/cellular mechanisms by which ______ may mediate anti-cancer effects include inhibition of nitrosamine compound formation, inhibtion of carcinogen bioactivation, enhanced GSH availability and induction of GST activity, epigenetic gene regulation, inhibtion of cellular processing of H-ras oncogene, and cell cycle arrest
allyl sulfides
Hydrolysis of ______ (sulfur-containing glycosides) present in cruciferous vegetables during cooking/eating by the enzyme _______ generates _______
glucosinolates, myrosinase, isothiocyanates
Potential mechanisms by which _______ may protect against carcinogenesis include inhibtion of carcinogen bioactivation and/or activation of phase II detoxifying enzymes, such as _________ (also has reported effects on cell cycle progression and induction of apotosis
isothiocyanates, glutathione S-transferase
Structurally similar to estrogen (phytoestrogen compounds) such as _____ and ______, these compounds are found in ______ and _____ products
genistein, daidzein, soy beans, soy products
Glycoside conjugates of genistein and daidzein are metabolized by intestinal bacteria to the free _______ and various derivatives, such as ______
isoflavones (aglycone form), equaol (only 35% of people in US have intestinal flora capable of synthesizing equol)
Overall, however, epidemiologic studies show that consumption of ______ and _____ pruducts (as opposed to isolated isoflavones) seems to be protective against breast cancer
soybeans and soy products
Other weak phytoestrogens include enterolactone and enterodiol (______) which, like isoflavones, are formed through the metabolism of phytochemical precursors by intestinal bacteria
What are the best dietary sources of lignans?
Oilseeds (flaxseed) and vegetables-----other sources include cereal brans (oat bran and wheat bran, whole cereals (brown rice) as well as soybeans and soy products
Other potential health benefits of consuming a diet high in soybeans and soy products may include some protection from ______, ______, and ______?
CV disease, osteoporosis, and alleviation of some of the symptoms of menopause
Dietary fat has been most closely associated with risk for _______?
breast cancer
What are the 4 dietary recommendations for the prevention of cancer?
1)increase consumption of fruits and vegetables to at least FIVE servings per day
2)limit consumption of red meat
3)consume alcoholic beverages in moderation (if at all)
4)avoid cooking meat by high-temperature methods; limit consumption of charred/grilled foods