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96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
composed of 3 fatty acids and glycerol backbone
95% of fat in diet
long chain fatty acid
12-24 carbons
medium chain fatty acid
6-10 carbons
short chain fatty acid
less than 6 carbons
saturated fatty acid
fatty acid carrying max # of hydrogen atoms
point of unsaturation
lack hydrogen and have at least one double bond
unsaturated fatty acid
MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids) and PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids)
lacks 4 or more hydrogen atoms, have at least 2 double bonds
-liquid at room temp
-spoil most easily
*identified by location of double bond starting from methyl end
2 essential fatty acids
linolenic acid (an omega-3) and linoleic acid (an omega-6)
like triglyceride, but 2 fatty acids and phosphate instead of 3 fatty acids
EX: mayonaise- fat and water, but they do not seperate
compounds with 4-carbon ring structure, variety of side chains attached
*cholesterol (only in animal sterols)
-your liver produces less cholesterol if you take in more
fats hate watery environments (GI tract=watery environment)
large lipids (monoglycerides & long chain fatty acids) combine with bile
lipids associated with protiens that serve as transport vehicles for fat in both blood and lymph
largest, least dense lipoprotein, transport diet derived foods
VLDL (very low density)
made by liver to transport lipids to cells
-primarily triglyceride
LDL (low density)
derived from VLDL as triglyceride removed
-primarily cholesterol
-high LDL=high risk of heart disease
HDL (high density)
transports cholesterol back to liver
-primarily protein
-high HDL=low risk of heart disease
*good cholesterol
Roles of Triglycerides
1) energy reserve
2) insulation
3) shock protection (fat protects internal organs)
4) use CHO and protein efficiently
linolenic acid
make EPA and DHA-important for normal growth and development (brain & eyes)
lipoprotein lipase (LPL)
enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides and directs their parts into cells
hormone sensitive lipase
enzyme inside adipase cells hydrolyzes triglycerides for energy
Recommended intakes of fat
-20-35% of energy intake
-less than 10% saturated fat
-trans fat as low as possible
-less that 300 mg cholesterol
nonessential amino acids
-body can make itself
essential amino acids
-must be consumed in diet
conditionally essential amino acids
when a nonessential amino acid becomes essential
peptide bonds
links one amino acid to another
**condensation of 2 amino acids=dipeptide
protein primary structure
amino acids linked together
protein secondary structure
coiling of strand, spring-like shape
protein tertiary structure
folding of the coil, protein may be functional
protein quaternary structure
addition of vitamin or mineral or another protein (or glucose) to be functional
irreversible damage to the tertiary structure of a protein due to heat, acid, base, alcohol, heavy metal
-uncoiling results in loss of function
-may destroy body proteins
genetic material of cells, necessary for protein synthesis
contains template for making new protein
process where DNA--> mRNA
protein making machinary of cell
collects amino acids in cytosol and brings them to ribosome
process where mRNA--> protein
insulin and glucagon
regulate blood glucose
regulates the body;s metabolic rate
calcitonin and parathormone
regulate blood calcium
antidiuretic hormone
regulates fluid and electrolyte balance
amino acid pool
supply of available amino acids
postive nitrogen balance
N in > N out
-pregnant women
-ppl recovering from illness/protein deficiency
negative nitrogen balance
N in < N out
-ppl who suffered severe stress (burns, injuries, infections, etc)
high quality proteins
contain all the essential amino acids
-animal foods contain all essential amino acids
-plant food usually miss one or more
complementary protiens
method of combining plant foods together that contain all essential amino acids
-used by princesses
protein digestability x amino acid score
*milk and egg protein used as guideline
Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)
1) chronic PEM (maramus)
2) acute PEM (kwashiorkor)
3) combination of 2
chronic PEM
-children under 2 years
-dry form
-severe deprivation of protein and energy over long period
acute PEM
-older infants and toddlers (age 1-3)
-"first child-second child"-occurs when 1st child is weaned off breast-feeding for second child
-wet form (Edema)
-fatty liver
Recommended intakes of proteins
10-35% energy intake
-0.8gm/kg body weight
Calculating protein intakes
WEight:180 lbs
130 lb/2.2 lb/kg=59.1kg
59.1kg x 0.8gm/kg=47 gm
exclude all animal derived products
include milk products
include milk products and eggs
macrobiotic diets
extremely restricted diets limited to a few grains and vegetables, based on beliefs NOT nutrition
requiring energy
compounds that cells can use for energy
reactions requiring energy in which small molecules are put together to build larger ones
the sum total of all chemical reactions that go on in living cells
not requiring oxygen
small organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity
reactions in which large molecules are broken down to smaller ones
the transfer of an amino group from one amino acid to a keto acid, producing a new
the metabolic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate
the principle nitrogen-excretion product of metabolism
energy metabolism
includes all reactions by which body obtains and spends energy from food
(ex: CHO--> glucose, fructose, galactose, fat--> fatty acids, glycerol, protein--> amino acids)
a common high-energy compound composed of purine, sugar, and 3 phosphate groups
provides energy stored in food and body
where most of ATP is produced
proteins that facilitate reactions
glucose has...
6 carbons
glycerol has...
3 carbons
amino acid has...
2, 3, or more carbons with a nitrogen attached
Glycolysis (Glucose-to-Pyruvate)
-does not require oxygen (anaerobic)
-occurs in cytosol
-1 glucose produces 2 pyruvates
-net gain=2 ATP
Pyruvate-to-Lactic Acid (anaerobic pathway)
-occurs when cells lack mitochondria or oxygen
-during high intensity exercise
Pyruvate-to-Acetyl CoA (aerobic)
-occurs with enough oxygen
-pyruvate enters mitochondria
-3 carbon molecule to 2 carbon
CAN be used to make glucose
Acetyl CoA...
CANNOT be used to make glucose
Fatty Acids to Acetyl CoA
CoA attaches to the end of fatty acid; the last 2 carbons w/ the CoA are split off forming Acetyl CoA--> Acetyl CoA go to TCA cycle
Urea Excretion
-principle way to get rid of unused nitrogen
-urea increases w/ increased protein intake
-need to increase water intake to prevent dehydration
TCA cycle (aka Creb cycle)
-occurs in mitochondria
-1-way cycle
-loses 8 electrons
-most nutrients come in at Acetyl CoA
ETC (electron transport chain)
-coenzymes deliver electrons
-each carrier recieves electrons and passes them on to next carrier
-O2 consumed, H2O and CO2 produced
Acetyl CoA fragments produce ketone bodies
-can provide brain w/ some energy
-pH goes down in blood (downside)
alcohol dehydrogenase
enzyme in stomach that acts on alcohol
**reduces the amount of alcohol entering bloodstrem by 20%
fatty liver
-1st state of liver deterioration in heavy drinkers
-interfers with nutrient distribution, oxygen delivery
-2nd stage in heavy drinkers
-still somewhat reversible
-loss of liver cells, formation of fibrosis scar tissue
-3rd and final stage of heavy drinkers
-least reversible
direct calorimetry
direct measure of heat energy released using a bomb calorimeter
-overstates the amount of energy derived (we are not that efficient)
physiological fuel value
difference between kcalories measured w/ calorimetry vs. # of kcalories human body derives from food
initiates eating through sight, smell, thought, or taste of food
overriding hunger
-cognitive influences (memores, social, etc)
-large portion, fav food
-stress eating
Sustaining hunger
-protein=most satiating
-complex carbs & fibers= satiation
-high fat foods stimulate ppl to eat
BMI (body mass index)
-measures relative weight for height
-underweight: BMI<18.5
-normal: BMI 18.5-24.9
-overweight BMI > 25
-obese BMI >30
-extreme obese BMI >40
central obesity
-more common in men
-increased risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, some cancers
lower body fat
-"pear shape" more common in women
-less risk