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65 Cards in this Set

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What % of body weight does water compromise?
60%
Functions of water.
Delivers nutrients to cells
Removes wastes from cells
Dissolves nutrients for transport
Lubricates & cushions delicate tissues
Regulates body temp
Participates in chemical reactions
Bottled water vs. tap water.
Standards for bottled water are less than tap
Who should use sports drinks or high carbohydrate energy drinks? When is plain or flavored water appropriate?
exercise for one hour or less plain water, more than one hour sports drink to replenish electrolytes
What beverages are not good sources of hydration and why?
Drinks with high % of carbohydrates
Drinks with caffeine
Sodas
Alcohol
What are electrolytes? Their function?
Compounds that partly dissociate in water to form ions
Function: fluid balance inside and outside the cells
Sodium & potassium: needed for nerve transmissions and muscle function
Do we get enough sodium in our diets? Potassium? Food sources?
Usually eat too much sodium and too little potassium.
Sodium: salt, canned soup, pickles, potato chips, cheese, frozen foods, gravies, packaged foods, ham, bacon, sausage
Potassium: fruits & veggies
What disease state is most related to high sodium and low potassium intake?
High blood pressure (or hypertension) - high BP can lead to stroke, kidney disease, aneurysms
Osteoporosis
What are some of the best ways to decrease sodium intake?
Avoid salt shaker
Choose fresh, unprocessed food
Choose fewer fast foods
Decrease salty snacks
Choose fresh meats & fish instead of canned
What is the function of iron?
Carries oxygen to all parts of the body
Hemoglobin - blood
Myoglobin - muscle
What are symptoms of iron deficiency? Is it common?
Yes, most common nutritional deficiency worldwide
Symptoms: impaired physical work capacity and productivity; tired, fatigue
What are 2 forms of iron? Foods associated with each?
Heme iron - animal sources
Nonheme iron - plant sources
Which form of iron is absorbed better?
Heme iron
What specific factors enhance and inhibit iron absorption?
Inhibit - high fiber; calcium & phosphorus; tannic acid (tea & coffee); oxalates (spinach); phytates (in fiber of legumes & whole grains)

Enhance - vitamin c; acidic foods; stomach acid; pairing nonheme iron foods with vitamin c foods (iron fortified cereal with strawberries; toast with OJ)
What is meant by bioavailability?
Extent that a nutrient or substance is capable of being absorbed and utilized. Need of a person and absorption factors affect bioavailability
What is the number one nutrient deficiency worldwide?
Iron deficiency
A low blood hemoglobin level is referred to as ____?
Anemia
Which minerals are involved in bone health?
Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium
What is the most abundant mineral in our body?
Calcium
What are the functions of calcium?
Maintaining bone mineral density and structure of bones and teeth
Ca in bloodstream - nerve transmissions, muscle contractions, blood clotting, maintaining normal BP
When blood levels of calcium are low, how does the body compensate?
Calcium from bones
What factors can increase or decrease calcium absorption?
Increase - vitamin d; lactose; stomach acid; growth hormones; pregnancy

Decrease - lack of vitamin d; lack of stomach acid; high fiber; high phosphorus intake (sodas)
Know some risk factors for osteoporosis. Are they all diet-related?
No
weight barring exercise can increase
What is the best source of calcium in the diet?
Yogurt and milk
How many servings of dairy products per day do we need to meet dietary recommendations for calcium?
3 servings per day
What is the second most abundant mineral in the body? What are its functions?
Phosphorus
Functions - maintains bones and teeth; part of DNA & RNA; energy transfer (ATP); part of cell membranes (phospholipids); acid-base balance
Why might phosphorus in soft drinks be a problem?
??
What is the primary function of magnesium?
??
What are the 3-month increments during pregnancy known as?
Trimesters
How does the body work to prevent a deficiency of nay nutrients during pregnancy?
Increases absorptions and decreases excretion
What is the number one predictor of a healthy infant? What are some factors that influence this?
Birth weight (6.5-8.5 lbs)
Low calorie and protein intake can results in a low birth weight
Age of mom during delivery
Define embryo.
Stage of human gestation from the 3rd to 8th week after conception
Define fetus.
Stage of human gestation from 8 weeks
Define critical period.
A finite period during development in which certain events may occur that will have irreversible effects on latter developmental states. A critical period is usually a period of cell division in a body organ.
What are the 3 key nutrients needed in greater amounts during pregnancy?
a. Prevents neural tube defects
b. Due to increased blood volume and loss
c. Critical to cell division
a. Folate or folic acid
b. Iron
c. Zinc
What are some substances that could harm the baby if used during pregnancy?
Recreational drug use (cocaine, heroin, weed), smoking, alcohol, caffeine
Advantages and cautions to exercising during pregnancy.
Benefits - prevents excess weight gain; builds stamina; decreases stress; decreases complications with labor and delivery; prevents gestational diabetes

Cautions - low impact; eat & drink enough/stay hydrated
What is the supplemental food program for pregnant women, infants and children?
WIC: educational services and materials, agricultural dietetic association, local hosptials
during which trimesters of pregnancy do calorie needs increase MOST?
2nd and 3rd
What makes up the weight gain experienced during pregnancy (not specific amounts)
fat gain is needed for lactation, weight gain is nearly all lean tissue, some weight is lost with delivery (fetal weight, uterus, blood, & other fluids)
what are the weight gain recommendations for a healthy pregnancy?
25-35 lbs
how many extra calories does a pregnant woman need each day? A breastfeeding woman?
300 k/cal per day for pregnancy
500 k/cal for breastfeeding
Name the advantages as well as barriers to breastfeeding?
nutrients are in ideal proportions and are more bioavailable; barriers are
If a mother is not getting adequate nutrients, breast milk quality is compromised. T/F
FALSE
How do you know if the baby is getting enough milk?
mucous membranes wet, 5 wet diapers 1 dirty diaper per day, gaining weight
what determines how much milk is made?
the demand of the baby
The national goals for breastfeeding rates at newborn, 6 months, 1 year
50% still breastfeed at 6 months and 1 year
What is the recommendation for alcohol intake during pregnancy?
Zero
Describe the weight gain patterns of infants during the first year of life
rapid growth the first year doubling birth weight at 4 months, triple birth weight at 1 year
when should solid foods be introduced to babies and in what order?
solids at 4-6 months 1 food at a time, iron fortified rice cereal first, then veggies, fruits and meat
how do we know when to introduce solid foods
when nutrient needs cannot be met with breast milk/formula alone; if they have their swallowing reflex and can sit up
why should we introduce one food at a time?
4-5 days b/w food to identify food allergies
when is it appropriate to introduce cow's milk to the infant's diet?
after the first year, whole milk until two years old
Should babies be given bottles in bed?
No, bottle tooth decay, they can't sit up, causes ear infections and improper jaw development
At what age does appetite decrease dramatically in infants/toddlers?
Decreases rapidly after 1st bday
what are common food allergies among children?
peanut, milk, eggs, wheat, soybeans, fish, shellfish
what is the most common nutrient deficiency in children and why?
iron, dislike of iron rich foods and large amounts of cow milk and juice
should fat be restricted in a child's diet? why or why not?
No not until the brain develops and they need fat for rapid growth
What is it meant by the division of labor when feeding children?
parents are responsible for what child eats and when; child decides if they are going to eat and how much
how should you respond to food jags?
No response, don't give them attention
Is diet related to hyperactivity?
No
What stage of childhood is most dramatic in terms of growth and development?
adolescents
How does television influence children's food intake?
It requires zero energy; takes place of physical activity' commercials and boredom cause snacking' kids get out of shape and it becomes harder to be physically active
What are the benefits of eating breakfast?
Children who don't eat breakfast are: more likely to be overweight; more likely to perform poorly in tasks requiring concentration; have shorter attention spans; achieve lower test scores; are tardy or absent more often than their well-fed peers
What are the factors that affect nutritional status during adolescence?
Making own meal choices; skipping meals; eating 1/3 of all meals; 25% of calories from snacks of low nutrient density; social pressures; experimentation; body image & eating disorders; inactivity & obesity; education