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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What do plants use to produce carbs?
CO2 and H2O
What elements make up carbs?
C, H, O
What is the chemical formula for monosaccharides?
C6 H12 O6
What are the 3 major groups of monosaccharides?
Glucose
Fructose
Galactose
List the monosaccharides and the sources of each.
glucose-> blood sugar, fruits
fructose-> fruits, honey
galactose-> breakdown of lactose
List the disaccharides and sources of each.
maltose-> 2 glucose (barley)
sucrose-> 1 glucose, 1 fructose (table sugar)
lactose-> 1 glucose, 1 galactose (milk)
Name the Polysaccharides and the sources of each.
starch-> wheat, rice, legumes, potatoes, soy
glycogen-> stored in body
fibers-> pectin, gums, mucilages
What are polysaccharides composed of?
starch-> 100s to 1000s of glucose
glycogen-> up to 100,000 glucose
fibers-> cellulose, hemicellulose
Significance of glyocogen
highly branched chains permit rapid hydrolysis, producing energy (GLYCOGEN)
Which polysaccharides provide energy?
Glycogen and Starch
Which are fibers?
cellulose
hemicellulose
pectins
gums
mucilages
Digestion of starch
mouth->starch->dextrins->maltose
stomach-no digestion of carbs
sm. intest- amylase, maltase,sucrase, lactase
end product-monosaccharides
Lactose intolerance
define, symptoms
deficiency of lactose
ab cramps, gas, diarrhea
Percent of world's adult pop. w/lactose intolerance?
who in US most likely?
75% of adults
Asian & Native Americans most likely
end products of CHO digestion
monosaccharides
absorption and transportation of monosaccharides to heart
sm intest, portal route

villi-> portal vein-> liver-> hepatic vein-> heart
glucose metabolism
cells use glucose for energy, glucose stored as glycogen, sometiems converted to fat
where is glycogen stored?
1/3=liver=glucose reserve
2/3=muscles=enercy source
functions of carbs
energy 4kcal/g
brain (uses 100-130 g), nerves, RBCs
glycogen reserves
protein sparing action
fat catabolsim
glocogenisis
make glucose from non-carb source (major source: body proteins)
when? skip b-fast, low carb intake, anorexics
blood gluose hormose
insulin- lowers BG
glucagon- raises BG
normal range of BG
70-99 mg/dl
hypoglycemia
typical level, symptoms
<40-50 mg/100 ml

nausea, dizzy, irritable
sources of carbs
broccoli, bread, apricots, milk, kidney beans
carbs- RDA
25%?
why eat breakfast
blood sugar & glycogen source
perf./ phys & cog learning
skipping may dec. met. rate
maintain weight loss
better blood lipid levels
good breakfast
whole grains, fruits, beggies, non-fat milk, protein

400-1000 kcals
soluble fiber
may lower risk of heart disease, control weight, oats & legumes, lower bllod cholesterol
insoluble fiber
precents constipation, wheat bran
rec. intake
men, women
men under 50: 38g/day
women under 50: 25g/day
sources of fiber
cereal 0-15g
legumes 6-16g
fruits 1-4g
veggies 0-4g
breads .5-3g
+ health effects of fiber
diabetes, GI health, cancer, weight management