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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What do plants use to produce carbs?
CO2 and H2O
What elements make up carbs?
C, H, O
What is the chemical formula for monosaccharides?
C6 H12 O6
What are the 3 major groups of monosaccharides?
List the monosaccharides and the sources of each.
glucose-> blood sugar, fruits
fructose-> fruits, honey
galactose-> breakdown of lactose
List the disaccharides and sources of each.
maltose-> 2 glucose (barley)
sucrose-> 1 glucose, 1 fructose (table sugar)
lactose-> 1 glucose, 1 galactose (milk)
Name the Polysaccharides and the sources of each.
starch-> wheat, rice, legumes, potatoes, soy
glycogen-> stored in body
fibers-> pectin, gums, mucilages
What are polysaccharides composed of?
starch-> 100s to 1000s of glucose
glycogen-> up to 100,000 glucose
fibers-> cellulose, hemicellulose
Significance of glyocogen
highly branched chains permit rapid hydrolysis, producing energy (GLYCOGEN)
Which polysaccharides provide energy?
Glycogen and Starch
Which are fibers?
Digestion of starch
stomach-no digestion of carbs
sm. intest- amylase, maltase,sucrase, lactase
end product-monosaccharides
Lactose intolerance
define, symptoms
deficiency of lactose
ab cramps, gas, diarrhea
Percent of world's adult pop. w/lactose intolerance?
who in US most likely?
75% of adults
Asian & Native Americans most likely
end products of CHO digestion
absorption and transportation of monosaccharides to heart
sm intest, portal route

villi-> portal vein-> liver-> hepatic vein-> heart
glucose metabolism
cells use glucose for energy, glucose stored as glycogen, sometiems converted to fat
where is glycogen stored?
1/3=liver=glucose reserve
2/3=muscles=enercy source
functions of carbs
energy 4kcal/g
brain (uses 100-130 g), nerves, RBCs
glycogen reserves
protein sparing action
fat catabolsim
make glucose from non-carb source (major source: body proteins)
when? skip b-fast, low carb intake, anorexics
blood gluose hormose
insulin- lowers BG
glucagon- raises BG
normal range of BG
70-99 mg/dl
typical level, symptoms
<40-50 mg/100 ml

nausea, dizzy, irritable
sources of carbs
broccoli, bread, apricots, milk, kidney beans
carbs- RDA
why eat breakfast
blood sugar & glycogen source
perf./ phys & cog learning
skipping may dec. met. rate
maintain weight loss
better blood lipid levels
good breakfast
whole grains, fruits, beggies, non-fat milk, protein

400-1000 kcals
soluble fiber
may lower risk of heart disease, control weight, oats & legumes, lower bllod cholesterol
insoluble fiber
precents constipation, wheat bran
rec. intake
men, women
men under 50: 38g/day
women under 50: 25g/day
sources of fiber
cereal 0-15g
legumes 6-16g
fruits 1-4g
veggies 0-4g
breads .5-3g
+ health effects of fiber
diabetes, GI health, cancer, weight management