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42 Cards in this Set

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Blue/Green Algae Toxin Deficiency?
N/A
Sulfate Deficiency?
N/A
Nitrate Deficiency?
N/A
Calcium Deficiency?
Susceptable: horses (loose Ca in urine/ sweat), late gestation, early lactation
Acute: Ruminants: muscle weakness. Horses: tetany, facial spasms, prrolapsed 3rd eyelid. Dog: tetany, vomiting, convulsions
Chronic: osteomalacia/ rickets
Phosphorus Deficiency?
Chronic, post- parturient hemoglobinuria in adult cattle, osteomalacia/ rickets, pica, dec. production and weight
Potassium Deficiency?
Rarely a nutritional problem: muscle weakness, cardiac arrhythmia, pica
Sodium Deficiency?
Pica (after weeks); dec food intake/ growth/ lactation, and PU/PD (after months)
Chlorine Deficiency?
Susceptible: lactating dairy cows, dec production, metabolic alkalosis (bicarbonate buffers)
Magnesium Deficiency?
Acute: Onset assocciated with stress/ bad weather, Older/ Lactating/ Pregnant ruminants: grass tetany, ear twictching, kicking at belly, convulsions, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, death
Chronic: mild hypomagnesemia w/o hypocalcemia, poor growth, dec food intake
Copper Deficiency?
MOST economically important defificiency of cattle. primary or secondary (inc molybdenum and sulfur but normal copper). Spectacled appearance, epiphysitis, diarrhea (2'), swayback in sheep
Selenium Deficiency?
Ruminants: myopathy w/ stifness, aspirations, pneumonnia, myoglobinuric nephrosis (acute renal failure), cardiac arrhythmia, CHF, death.
Pigs: hepatosis dietetica
Cobalt deficiency?
Very rare. Anemia; ketosis in ruminants.
Vitamin A deficiency?
Pregnant Cows: short gestation, still births, late term abortions, squamous metaplasia of the partotid duct (fetus). Growing cows: dec growth, inc CSF pressure, night blindness, peripheral blindness, convulsions, ataxia
Vitamin D deficiency?
Osteomalacia/ rickets
Vitmain E deificiency?
Pigs: microangiopathy, hepatosis dietetica, mulberry heart. All species: muscle degeneration.
Cardiac: arrythmia, tachycardia; Skeletal: stiffness, recumbency, dysphagia, myoglobinuria, steatitis
Vitamin K deficiency?
Results from poisoning (Warfarin/ Dicoumaral). Persistent bleeding, hematomas, anemia, delayed clotting
Thiamine (B1) deficiency?
Ruminants (high grain diets): polioencephalomalacia.
Monogastrics: anorexia, ataxia, cardiac hypertrophy in dogs
Niacin (B3) deficiency?
Pellagra (black tongue): teh 4 D's
Dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death
Biotin (B7) deficiency?
rare but possible if egg white are fed or oral antimicrobials. Poor hoof/ horn formation
Cobalamin (B12) deficiency?
Anemia
Vitamin C deificiency?
nonessential
Blue/ Green algae toxin toxicity?
Opisthotonos, convulsions, weakeness, bloody diarrhea, death
Sulfate Toxicity?
Polioencephalomalacia in ruminants: central blindness, head pressing, opsithotonos
Nitrate Toxicity?
Chocolate- brown blood (nitrite reduced Hb to methHb, cant carry as much oxygen)
Calcium Toxicity?
Horses: Calcium carbonate urolithiasis
Cats: calcium oxylate urolithiasis
Supresed phosphorus absorption
Phosphorus Toxicity?
Struvite urolithiasis, especially if dietary calcium is low. May supress calcium absorption
Potassium toxicity?
dec magnesium, cardiac arrest
Sodium toxicity?
>2 % can be toxic to herbivores/ pigs. Diarrhea. PU/PD, dec production. Pigs susceptible (normal Na, low H2O), get eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, inc CSF pressure, head pressing, blindness, convulsions
Chlorine toxicity?
Unlikely
Magnesium Toxicity?
Struvite urolithiasis
Copper Toxicity?
Sheep and Llamas (bedlington terriers), inc liver enzymes, jaundice, hemolytic crisis, death
Selenium Toxicity?
Rare, Blind staggers and hoof deformities
Cobalt Toxicity?
Rarely ever dietary. Human error usually
Vitamin A Toxicity?
dec food intake, dec growth, lameness, CNS signs, teratogenic (fetus)
Vitamin D Toxicity?
MOST TOXIC VITAMIN. Hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatmia, soft tissue mineralization, weakness, reluctance to move, metastatic calcification (heart blood vessels, kidneys). Weight loss in horses. HEMORRHAGIC GASTRITIS WITH VOMITING IN PIGS
Vitamin E Toxicity?
Non Toxic!
Vitamin K Toxicity?
K1 is the least toxic of vitamins. K3 acute failure, colic, and death in horses.
Thiamine (B1) Toxicity?
Non -Toxic!
Niacin (B2) Toxicity?
Non- Toxic!
Biotin (B7) Toxicity?
Non- Toxic!
Cobalamin (B12) Toxicity?
Non- Toxic!
Vitamin C Toxicity?
nonessential