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79 Cards in this Set

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A diet that excludes only those foods that a person cannot chew (includes all foods and seasonings) is called?
mechanical soft diet
Difficulty in swallowing is called?
dysphagia
The drawing in of food, gastric secretions, or liquid inot the lungs is called?
aspiration
The region of the body just above the stomach is called?
epigastric
A burning sensation felt behind the sternum caused by the presence of gastric juices in the esophagus is called?
heartburn
Anemia caused by a lack of intrinsic factor and the consequent malabsorption of vitamin B12 is called?
pernicious anemia
Inflammation of the stomach lining is called?
gastritis
A protrusion of a portion of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus of the stomach is called?
hiatal hernia
An erosion of the top layer of cells from the mucosa of the lower esophagus, the stomach, or the small intestine is called?
peptic ucler
Marked hypersecretion of gastric acid and consequent peptic uclers caused by a tumor of the pancreas is called?
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
Surgery to remove all or part of the stomach is called?
gastrectomy
Surgery that enlarges the pyloric sphincter is called?
pylorplasty
Surgery that severs the nerves that stimulate gastric acid secretion is called?
vagotomy
Surgery for severe obesity that limits the functional size of the stomach is called?
gastric partitioning
Vague abdominal pain is called? It's also known as indigestion.
dyspepsia
The backflow of regurgitation of gastric contents from the stomach into the esophagus, causing inflammation of the esophagus is called?
Gerd/Reflux esophagitis
Lesions or sores in the lining of the esophagus is called?
esophageal ulcers
Changes in the cells of the esophagus associated with chronic gastroesophageal reflux that raise the risk of cancer of the esophagus is called?
Barrett's esophagus
What kind of diet would you recommend to someone who has just had a tonsillectomy?
mechanical soft diet
What kind of diet would you recommend for dysphagia?
mechanical soft diet
Indigestion is also known as?
dyspepsia
What kind of diet would you recommend to someone who has gastritis?
liberal bland diet
This disorder most often follows the repeated use of aspirin or other medications that irritate the gastric mucosa.
acute gastritis
This disorder may be associated with aging, peptic ulcer disease and conditions that cause the chronic reflux of basic fluids from the duodenum into the stomach.
chronic gastritis
Many people with chronic gastritis have ___.
pernicious anemia
What is the result of chronic gastritis?
The gastric cells gradually shrink and gastric secretions decline.
What are the 3 main causes of peptic ulcers?
1. helicobacter pyloric infections
2. use of certain anti-inflammatory medications
3. disorders that cause excessive gastric acid secretion
How are peptic ulcers treated?
antisecretory agents
What kind of diet would you recommend to someone who has peptic ulcers?
liberal bland diet
What are the 4 types of gastric surgeries?
1. pyloroplasty
2. gastrectomy
3. vagotomy
4. gastric partitioning
When undigested food gets "dumped" rapidly into the ___, dumping syndrome may occur.
jejunum
A post-gastrectomy diet limits the total amount of ___ as well the amount of ___. It emphasizes foods high in ___ and provides additional energy from ___.
carbohydrates, simple sugars, protein, fat
What kind of diet would you recommend to someone who has had gastric partioning?
mechanical soft diet
Gastric surgery can result in ___, ___, ___, and ___.
weight loss, nutrient deficiencies, anemia, bone disease
the condition of having infrequent or difficult bowel movements is called?
constipation
___ is a side effect of a high-fiber diet.
excessive gas
What 3 kinds of components of food may cause gas for some ppl?
1. high fat foods
2. fructose
3. sugar alcohols
What is gas in the intestinal tract or the expelling of gas from the intestinal tract called?
flatus
The frequent passage of watery bowel movements are called?
diarrhea
___ diarrhea results from an accelerated movement of fluids and electrolytes from the intestinal capillaries into the lumen of the intestine.
secretory
___ diarrhea results from an increase in an osmolality of the intestinal contents due to unabsorbed nutrients or drugs.
osmotic
Dumping syndrome is an example of ___ diarrhea.
osmotic
___ is an intestinal disorder of unknown causes.
irritable bowel syndrome
___ is a medication that reduces GI tract motility.
anticholinergics
What do antidiarrheals do?
slows GI tract motility
Stress management would be used to treat this GI tract disorder.
irritable bowel syndrome
What are the two main nutrient deficiencies of lactose intolerance to be concerned with?
calcium and vitamin D
Disorders of the ___, ___, ___, and ___
can all lead to fat malabsorption.
stomach, pancreas, intestine, liver
Fatty diarrhea characterized by loose, foamy, foul-smelling stools is called?
steatorrhea
Many ppl with severe fat malabsorption develop ___ deficiencies.
fatty acid
___ are chemical compounds formed between a basic mineral (such as calcium and magnesium) and unabsorbed fatty acids.
soaps
___ give steatorrhea its foamy appearance.
soaps
High urinary ___ favors the formation of kidney stones.
oxalate
___ are used when fat malabsorption occurs.
enzyme replacements
When activated digestive enzymes within the pancreas causes damage to the pancreas itself is what disorder?
pancreatitis
What is an indicator of pancreatitis?
serum amylase and lipase in the blood
Pancreatitis is a consequence of ___.
alcoholism
This is a genetic disorder characterized by the production of thick mucus that affects many organs, including the pancreas, liver, heart, gallbladder and small intestine.
cystic fibrosis
Progression of this disease leads to the formation of fibrous tissue in the intestine reducing its absorptive capacity, narrowing the intestinal lumen, and sometimes creating an obstruction.
inflammatory bowel disease
___ is infection and inflammation of the membrane lining the abdominal cavity caused by leakage of infectious organisms through a perforation (hole) in an abdominal organ.
peritonitis
What are the 2 types of inflammatory bowel diseases?
Chron's disease, ulcerative colitis
__ is a tumor or growth that contains foreign organisms surrounded by immune system cells and covered with a fibrous coat.
granuloma
This disease is characterized by inflammation and ulceration along the length of the GI tract, often with granulomas.
Chron's disease
___ is the inflammation and ulceration of the colon.
ulcerative colitis
___ is an abnormal opening between two organs or between an internal organ and the skin.
fistula
___ refers to the problems of fat malabsorption and vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies that result from the overgrowth of bacteria in a bypassed segemnt of the intestine.
blind loop syndrome
Bacteria in the small intestine partly dismantle ___ which causes fat malabsorption.
bile salts
___ refers to severe malabsorption that may occur when the absorptive surface of the small bowel is reduced, resulting in diarrhea, weight loss, bone disease, hypcalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and anemia.
short bowel syndrome
A genetic disorder causing sensitivity to a part of the protein gluten that cause flattening of the intestinal villi and malabsorption is called?
celiac disease
These proteins act as toxic substances damaging the intestinal villi and leading to malabsorption.
gluten
What 4 components of food contain protein fractions that may damage the intestinal cells of a person who has celiac disease?
wheat, barley, rye, oats
Sacs or pouches that develop in the weakened areas of the intestinal wall are called?
diverticula
The condition of having diverticula is called?
diverticulosis
The condition of having infected diverticula is called.
diverticulitis
What kind of diet would you recommend to someone with diverticulosis?
high fiber diet, no seeds
___ is a surgery taht creates an opening from a portion of the colon through the abdominal wall and out through the skin; the rectum and anus are removed; allows for defecation when feces cannot pass through the colon and anus
colostomy
In a ___, the entire colon is removed.
ileostomy
People with ostomies need less or extra fluids?
extra
What kind of diet would you recommend to someone with an ostomy?
low-fiber, bland diet