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40 Cards in this Set

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RDA for sodium
UL for sodium
1,500 mg = RDA
2,300 mg = UL
Note:
American Adult Average = >3,400 mg
Food sources for sodium (where does salt in our food come from in terms of percentages)
77% comes from sodium in food (added during processing)

12% is present in foods naturally

6% is added to foods at the table

5% is added to foods during cooking at home
Sodium functions
Chief extracellular ion

Regulation of fluid balance

Essential for muscle contractions & nerve conduction
Sodium sensitivity/too much sodium
Kidney disease

African-Americans (prone to)

Over 50 years (prone to)

Parent had high blood pressure (prone to)
Potassium functions (3)
Chief intracellular ion

Fluid balance
Muscle extraction & nerve transmission
Associated with lowering blood pressure
RDA for potassium
Typical intake
AI = 4,700 mg/day
Typical intake = 2000-3000 mg/day
Diuretics
Cause urinary out-put/urination

May deplete potassium levels
Sources of potassium
Veggies and fruits
Where is calcium primarily found in body
Most abundant mineral in body

99% fond in bones (including teeth)
Functions of calcium
(Done by other 1% not stored in bones)
Regulated muscle contraction
Nerve trasmission
Blood clotting
Absorption of calcium
Requires Vitamin D intake

Normall absorb ~25% in foods

Increased in times of need (60% is absorbed)
-Pregnancy and childhood
Blood calcium
Why is this level maintained?
1% of total blood calcium

When it drops below a certain number body wants to bring it back to neutral state (vice versa)

Maintained at the price of bone calcium

Sets the stage for future bone fractures
Osteoporosis (Deficiency of calcium)
Adult bone loss

A pediatric disease with geriatric consequences (choice in early life effect getting osteoporosis in later life)
Bone growth mass

Rapid growth --> Net bone loss
Rapid & continual growth continues throughout adolescence

Peak bone mass = mid 20s

Bone loss begins = ~30 (net loss)
Women experience increased bone loss after menopause
Sources of calcium
Dairy
Milk
Cheese
Greens (not spinach-oxalates)
Fortified fruit drinks
Deficiency of magnesium
Diuretics (more susceptible to deficiency)

Antibiotic: Tetracycline (inhibits magnesium absorption)
Toxicity of magnesium
Abuse of laxative & antacids

Seen in eating disorders (leads to heart problems)
Food sources of magnesium
Vegetables: spinach, squash & beans
Whole-grains
Fruits: bananas
Milk/Yogurt
What is iron associated with (2)
Hemoglobin (RBC)
Myoglobin (Muscle)
Types of iron

Heme vs Non-heme iron
Heme iron:
40% of the iron in meat, poultry and fish is well absorbed

Non-heme iron:
60% of the iron in animal tissue and all the iron in plants are less well absorbed
Anemia (Iron deficiency)
Decreased RBC
Less oxygen to tissues
Impaired mental/physical activity
Pica (Iron deficiency)
Where one eats strange things
-Dirt, clay, paste, ice, etc
Who is most at risk for iron deficiency?
Women and children
Hemochromatosis (3)
(Iron toxicity)
Serious: especially for children
Genetic disease related to iron toxicity
Born with it: body doesn't handle iron well
Iron deposits in organs, leading to organ damage
Iodine/Iodide functions
Important in the production of thyroid hormone (thyroxin)
Thyroxin
Helps regulate many processes-including metabolic rate and mood
Iodine/Iodide deficiency
Cells of thyroid enlarge in an attempt to trap more iodine; resulting in a goiter (large lump under the neck)

Symptoms:
Sluggishness, goiter, & weight gain
Thyroid functions
Basal metabolism --> therefore when the thyroid stops functioning the basal metabolism lowers/stops being regulated and the person gains weight
Cretinism (Iodide/Iodine deficiency during pregnancy)
Mental and growth impairments
Can be reversed
Iodine/Iodide toxicity
Excess can enlarge thyroid-same as deficiency

Radiation exposure (living near a power point) -->One is given iodine supplements to flush out the system of radioactive waste (urine)
Iodine/Iodide Sources
Ocean products (except sea-salt)
Plants grown in soil rich in iodine (Soil near ocean)
Fortified NaCl (1/2 teaspoon)
Functions of zinc (6)
Enzyme reactions
DNA synthesis
Wound healing
Immune system
Sexual maturity
Taste perception
Zinc deficiency
First reported in boys in the middle east due to unleavened bread lacking yeast
Sources of Zinc
Animals: Beef, oysters, milk
Fortified cereals
Whole-grains
Beans
Chromium
Most recent mineral discovered (essential)
No classic deficiency or toxicity knowledge
Functions of chromium
Helps insulin function
May prevent insulin resistance
Doesn't help build muscle mass
Food sources of chromium
Whole-grains
Pork
Eggs (yolks)
Mushrooms
Beer
Flouride

Functions & Toxicity
Function:
Helps prevent cavities

Toxicity:
Fluorosis- Mottling of the teeth and damage to the bones
What in spinach binds another mineral, and what is that mineral?
oxalate binds calcium
What in fiber binds another mineral, and what is that mineral?
Phytate binds iron and zinc