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58 Cards in this Set

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Organic compounds that are vital to life and indispensable to body functions, but are needed only in minute amounts; noncaloric essential nutrients.
Vitamins
Compounds that can be converted into active vitamins. Remember that cholesterol can be converted to Vitamin D with the help of sunlight.
Precursors
What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
Vitamins A, D, E, K
What are the characteristics of fat-soluble vitamins?
-Found in the fats and oils of foods
-Dissolve in lipid
-Require bile for absorption
-Are stored in the liver and fatty tissues
-May be toxic in excess
-Can be stored in the body for a long period of time
What are the characteristics of water-soluble vitamins?
-Absorbed directly into the blood stream
-Body has limited capacity to store these in general
-Risk of toxicity is less than the fat-soluble
What are the water-soluble vitamins?
All the B vitamins and Vitamin C
What is an orange pigment with antioxidant activity and is a vitamin A precursor made by plants and stored in human fat tissue?
Beta-carotene
What are the functions of Vitamin A?
-Vision
-Immune Defenses
-Reproduction
-Bone Growth
-Gene Expression
-Normal Development of Cells
What is one of the active forms of Vitamin A made from beta-carotene in animal and human bodies? It is an antioxidant nutrient.
Retinol
What two roles does Vitamin A play in eyesight?
1. Help in the process of light perception at the retina

2. Help in the maintenance of a healthy, crystal-clear outer window, the cornea.
Vitamin A is a part of the __________ molecule. It is the light-sensitive pigment of the cells in the retina.
Rhodopsin
Slow recovery of vision after exposure to flashes of bright light at night; an early symptom of vitamin A deficiency.
Night blindness
Severe lack of Vitamin A can cause a process called ___________. It is the accumulation of keratin in a tissue and is a sign of Vitamin A deficiency.
Keratinization
What are the food sources of Vitamin A?
1. Supplements containing retinol (Vitamin A)

2. Liver and fish oil, milk products, fish, eggs, butter; plaints contain no active vitamin A, but many vegetables and fruits contain the vitamin A precursor, beta-carotene.

3. Most orange or green colored fruits or vegetables.
What are the deficiencies of Vitamin A?
Night blindness, corneal drying (xerosis), and blindness (xerophthalmia); impaired bone growth and easily decayed teeth; impaired immunity
What is the toxcity for Vitamin A?
Vitamin A: Increased activity of bone-dismantling cells causing reduced bone density and pain; liver abnormalities; birth defects

Beta-carotene: Harmless yellowing of skin
People at risk for not getting enough Vitamin D are those in _____ environments and _______ environments.
Foggy and Northern environments
What is an example of who is at most risk for Vitamin D deficiency?
Older, dark-skinned living in a Northern environment
Are most people at risk for Vitamin D deficiency?
NO; Vitamin D deficiency is not rare in the US. A significant number of people get vitamin D deficiency.
What are the two Vitamin D deficiency diseases?
Rickets (children) and Osteomalacia (adults)
What are the sources of Vitamin D?
Precursor= cholesterol + sunlight
When ultraviolet light from the sun shines our skin, cholesterols is transformed by our bodies to vitamin D.
Food: Fortified milk, eggs, liver, fish
What is the toxcity of Vitamin D?
Vitamin D is the most potentially toxic of all vitamins.
Risk of D toxcity is from supplements, not food.
What is the other name for Vitamine E?
Alpha-tocopherol and tocopherol
Vitamin E is a ______ __________ antioxidant and does what?
It's a fat soluble antioxidant and protects us from free radical damage.
What is the function of Vitamin E?
Protects lipids and cells from oxidative damage
What are the deficiencies for Vitamin E?
Just know its very unlikely to get a deficiency because its widely spread out in the food supply- we store it efficiently. It impacts our red blood cells.
What is the toxcity of Vitamin E?
From food- NOT a concern.
From supplements- can be a problem.
Where is the main source of Vitamin E?
Oils from plant sources
What is the function of Vitamin K?
It aids with blood clotting; synthesis of blood-clotting proteins and bone proteins.
What are the sources for Vitamin K?
1. Bacteria in our GI (intestines)
2. Any green leafy or cruciferous vegetables
What is the toxcity of Vitamin K?
Opposes the effects of anti-clotting medication
What is the deficiency of Vitamin K?
It's rare unless you're on antibiotics. Hemorrhage; abnormal bone formation
What are the characteristics of water-soluble vitamins?
-Dissolve in water
-Are easily absorbed and excreted
-Are not stored extensively in tissues
-Seldom reach toxic levels
Vitamin C is also known as ______ _____.
Ascorbic Acid
What is the Vitamin C deficiency disease that British sailors got?
Scurvy
What are the five functions of Vitamin C?
1. Helps from Collagen, which is needed to make bone, teeth, and tendons.
2. Collagen is needed to help wounds heal and mend fractured bones.
3. Antioxidant, which decreases effects of free radical
4. Aids absorption of Iron and these must be taken at the same meal
5. Helps recycle vitamin E to its active form- all antioxidants once oxidized need to be replaced by diet to recycle.
Vitamins and minerals that oppose the effects of oxidants on human physical functions. The antioxidant vitamins are vitamin E, vitamin C, and beta-carotene.
Antioxidant nutrients
Parts of an atom; negatively charged particles. Stable atoms have even numbers of electrons in pairs.
Electrons
Compounds that oxidize other compounds.
Oxidants
Damage inflicted on living systems by free radicals.
Oxidative stress
All B vitamins aid directly or indirectly with ____ ________. They help the body liberate ____ _____ ____ ____ ____ ____.
Energy metabolism; energy from CHO, PRO, & FAT.
In our bodies, the ____ or ____ _______ is the main metabolic process by which we acquire energy from food.
CTA or Kreb's cycle, In this cycle, B vitamins act like ball bearings in a wheels. Without them, the cycle wouldn't run.
All the B vitamins, except ___ and _______, are directly involved with energy metabolism.
B12 and Folate; they are involved in making new cells.
What was discovered when we were making white rice from brown rice? It's a B Vitamin involved in the body's use of fuels.
Thiamin
The thiamin-deficiency disease characterized by loss of sensation in the hands and feel, muscular weakness, advancing paralysis, and abnormal heart action.
Beriberi
Toxcity of Thiamin?
None reported
Riboflavin and Niacin are __ vitamins.
B
A B vitamin that acts as part of a coenzyme important in the manufacture of new cells. The form added to foods and supplements is folic acid.
Floate
What is the function for folate or folic acid?
It is needed for DNA synthesis (i.e. required to make new cells).
What are the sources of folate or folic acid?
Fortified grain products, leafy green vegetables, legumes
What is the deficiency of folate or folic acid?
While unlikely, a deficiency can happen with alcohol abuse, people who eat few vegetables.

1. Neural tube defects (birth defects that arise due to lack of adequate folate diet).
2. Anemia (large cell type)
Dietary deficiency of folate may increase the risk of
heart disease and some kinds of cancer.
What is the toxcity of folate or folic acid?
Excell folate from fortified foods or supplements are probably not toxic but they can obscure vitamin B12 deficiency.
What are the two functions of B12?
1. It's needed for DNA synthesis (i.e. required to make new cells). It works in conjunction with folate by recycling it.
2. Nerve cell health and growth
What are the sources of B12?
All animal flesh products
What is the deficiency of B12?
Getting a deficiency is unlikely but includes the same type of anemia as on gets with lack of adequate folate. Vegans, stomach removal or injury, elderly people are at risk.
We recycle B12 so efficiently that it can take almost ___ years for deficiency to appear.
6
In adults, not enough folate or B12 can cause ________.
anemia (large cell type)