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22 Cards in this Set

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The state in which the body's internal balance is upset by a threat to a person's physical well-being is called?
stress
___ stress falls within the body's normal and healthy functioning.
physiological
___ stress is imposed by illness, infection, or tissue injury.
pathological
Protein energy malnutrition that develops due to a sudden and dramatic demand for nutrients is called ___ malnutrition.
acute
An insufficient intake of energy and protein over long periods of time is called ___ malnutrition.
chronic
Protein energy malnutrition that develops due to a sudden and dramatic demand for nutrients is called ___ malnutrition.
acute
___ are proteins that help regulate inflammatory responses. Some cause anorexia, fever, and discomfort.
cytokines
An accumulation of pus that contains live microorganisms and immune system cells is called?
abcess
A grainlike growth that contains live microorganisms and immune system cells enclosed within a fibrous coat is called?
granuloma
Supplying too much energy further elevates the metabolic rate, which, in turn, increases ___ use and ___ production.
oxygen, carbon dioxide
An indirect estimate of resting energy needs made by measuring the amount of carbon dioxide expired (carbon dioxide production) and the amount of oxygen inspired (oxygen consumption) is called?
indirect calorimetry
Using indirect calorimetry requires special equipment called ___.
metabolic cart
The physiologic and metabolic complications associated with reintroducing adequate energy and nutrients too rapidly in people with depleted nutrient stores are collectively called the ___.
refeeding syndrome
___ is a nonessential amino acid in healthy people.
glutamine
What are the 3 functions of glutamine?
1. Provides fuel for intestinal cells
2. Plays important roles in immune function
3. Promotes wound healing
The changes orchestrated by the immune system when tissues are injured by such forces as blows, wounds, foreign bodies (chemicals, microorganisms), heat, cold electricity, or radiation are called?
inflammatory response
Hormones such as glucagon, cortisol, and catecholamines that oppose insulin's actions and promote catabolism are called?
counterregulatory hormones
The presence of infectious microorganisms in the bloodstream is called?
sepsis
A sudden drop in blood volume that disrupts the supply of oxygen to the tissues and organs and the return of blood to the heart is called?
shock
Protein loss during stress comes from ___, ___, ___.
skeletal muscle, connective tissue, gut
Protein synthesis in the liver and the tissues that produce immune cells increases or decreases?
increases
The complex of symptoms that occur as a result of immune and inflammatory factors in response to tissue damage is called?
systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)