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45 Cards in this Set

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When is a tube feeding indicated?
When an individual with a functioning GI tract is unable to eat enough food (or the appropriate type) by mouth to meet nutrient needs.
What kind of tube feeding is appropriate for less than 4 weeks?
nasogastric
What kind of tube feeding is appropriate for more than 4 weeks?
gastrostomy
___ are liquid diets intended for oral use or for tube feedings.
enteral formulas
A liquid feeding that contains complete/intact proteins is called? It is appropriate for ppl who are able to digest and absorb nutrients without difficulty.
standard
A liquid feeding that contains broken down fragments of protein, such as amino acids and short peptide chains; It is appropriate for ppl who cannot digest nutrients well.
hydrolyzed
___ are formulas that provide a single nutrient and are designed to be added to other formulas.
modules
Standard formulas contain ___ kcalorie/ml.
1.0
Nutrient-dense formulas provide ___ kcalories/ml.
1.2-2.0
___ is the measure of the concentration of particles in a solution, expressed in milliosmoles.
osmolality
___ formula is a formula with an osmolality similar to that of blood serum.
isotonic
A ___ formula has an osmolality greater than that of blood serum.
hypertonic
An ___ system is where formulas are decanted from their original packaging and then added to a feeding container before they can be administered through a feeding tube.
open
A ___ system is where formulas come prepackaged and ready to be attached to a feeding tube for administration.
closed
What are the two most serious complications associated with tube feedings?
1. The placement of a transnasal tube into the respiratory tract.
2. The aspiration of formula from the stomach into the lungs.
The delivery of about 250-400 ml of formula over 30 min. or more is called?
intermittent feedings
Is the risk of aspiration higher with intermittent feedings or continuous feedings?
intermittent feedings
___ feedings are well tolerated.
continuous
___ feedings are well tolerated.
continuous
___ feedings are less costly and easier for people to use at home.
intermittent
___ feeding is the delivery of about 250 to 300 ml of formula over 10 minutes or less.
bolus
___ feedings require infusion pumps to help ensure accurate and constant flow rates.
continuous
___ is the volume of formula that remains in the stomach from the previous feeding.
gastric residual
List 4 tube feeding complications.
1. Failure to estimate nutrient needs correctly.
2. Failure to ensure that the selected formula meets these needs limits the client's ability to achieve or maintain adequate nutrition status.
3. Mechanical problems: Clogged feeding tube
4. Metabolic complications: Dehydration
Name the two enterostomies.
gatrostomy, jejunostomy
Dextrose provides ___ kcalories per gram, whereas glucose provides ___ kcalories per gram.
3.4, 4
When is parenteral nutrition indicated?
Only when ppl cannot meet all of their nutrient needs using the enteral route.
What nutrients can be given via IV (6)?
Any or all of the essential nutrients: water, amino acids, carbohydrate, fat, vitamins, minerals
___ nutrition is delivery of nutrient solutions directly into a vein, bypassing the GI tract.
parenteral (IV)
Simple IV solutions contain ___% dextrose and normal ___.
5, saline
___ nutrition allows the infusion of concentrated IV solutions so that energy and nutrient needs can be met in small volumes.
central total parenteral nutrition
___ nutrition is indicated whenever parenteral nutrition will be required for long periods of time, when nutrient requirements are high, or when people are severely malnourished.
central total parenteral nutrition
___ nutrition is the provision of an IV solution that meets nutrient needs delivered through the peripheral veins.
peripheral parenteral
___ nutrition is the provision of an IV solution that meets nutrient needs delivered through a central vein.
central total parenteral
___ nutrition relies on IV lipid emulsions to provide a concentrated source of kcalories.
peripheral parenteral
___ nutrition is for ppl with normal renal function who need only short-term nutrition support.
peripheral parenteral nutrition
___ nutrition is for ppl with normal renal function who need only short-term nutrition support (7-14 days).
peripheral parenteral nutrition
People who have high-energy requirements should be put on ___ nutrition.
central total parenteral nutrition
People whose veins are weak or collapse easily should be put on ___ nutrition.
central TPN
People who need additional nutrients temporarily to supplement an oral diet or tube feeding should be put on ___ nutrition.
peripheral parenteral
A catheter inserted into a peripheral vein and advanced into a central vein is called?
peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)
___ nutrition is the continuous administration of central TPN solution for 8 to 12 hours a day with time periods when no nutrients are infused during the rest of the day.
cyclic parenteral
Parenteral nutrition can be discontinued when at least some ___ to ___ percent of estimated energy needs are being met by oral intake, tube feeding, or a combination of the two.
70, 75
Who is involved in the nutrition support team (4)?
1. Physician
2. Nurse
3. Dietitian
4. Pharmacist
A document signed by a competent adult that specifically states whether the person wishes aggressive treatment in the event of terminal illness or irreversible coma from which the person is not expected to recover is called?
living will