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72 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what are proteins basic unit?
Basic unit = amino acid
how many amino acids make up protein and what are the major atoms?
20 amino acids
Major atoms: C H O N, sometimes sulfur
what is a Polypeptide, a Dipeptide, and a Tripeptide?
Polypeptide is, Many amino acids bonded together to form a chain. FIGURE OUT WHAT a Dipeptide, and a Tripeptide IS?
HOW MANY amino acids are essential and why and what are their names?
9 amino acids are essential
Amino acids that the body cannot make in sufficient quantity
How many amino acids are semiessential and why?
6 amino acids are “semiessential”
In certain situations, the body cannot make this amino acid in sufficient quantity
what do amino acids names usually end in?
what are the nonessential Amino Acids?
-Aspartic acid



Lipid=Linoleic acid
what is a general term for enzymes and letters they often end in?
“Protease” is the general term
“-ase” often indicates an enzyme
what about Digestive enzymes for protein?
“Protease” is the general term
“-ase” often indicates an enzyme
Many have a “safety switch”
Need activation
Prevents self-digestion
Most cut proteins at certain amino acids
EX: Trypsin cleaves next to arginine and lysine
what is the process of protein digestion?
1. in the mouth the chewing begins the mechanical breakdown of protein
2.In the stomach hydrochloric acid and the enzyme pepsin begin the chemical digestion of protein----Gastric Acid (HCl) in stomach denatures protein--Proteases in stomach
3. In the small intestine, protein digesting enzymes secreted from the pancreas, along with those in the brush border, break down polypeptides into amino acids dipeptides, and tripeptide--Proteases also in small intestine
4.A variety of transport proteins move the products of protein digestion into the mucosal cell. some amino acids share the same transport system. In this figure, the larger number of purple amino acids means that more purple than green ones cross the membrane
5. Dipeptides and tripeptides can enter the mucosal cell. Once inside, they are broken down into single amino acids
6. Amino acids pass from the mucosal cell into the blood and travel to the liver, which regulates the distribution of amino acids to the rest of the body
7. Little dietary protein is lost in the feces
-End product are di/tripeptides, or amino acids(note i am not sure if the end product is ment to be after the stomic and small intestine or after the hole thing ASK RYE)
Where does the body get it proteins from?
-Most amino acids come directly from diet
-Tiny amount stored in blood
-Amino acid pool
-All proteins are made from scratch
-DNA has the code to manufacture proteins
-AA come from diet or are made by the body
-Structure of protein determines function
What are the three steps of protein synthesis?
1. First step in protein synthesis occurs inside the nucleus. It involves transferring, or transcribing the blueprint or code for the protein from the DNA gene into the molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA). This process is called transcription.
2. The mRNA takes the genetic information from the nucleus of the cell to structures called ribosomes in the cytoplasm of the cell, where proteins are made
3. Transfer RNA reads the genetic code and delivers the needed amino acids to the ribosometo form a polypeptide. This process is called translation.
What are proteins functions in the body?
-Structural materials
-Enzymes, Hormones
-Fluid balance
-Acid-Base regulators
-Antibodies for immunity
-Energy (4 kcal/g)
What are the Recommended Protein Intakes?
-10%-35% total kcal
-RDA: 0.8 g of protein / kg body weight
-Higher during pregnancy, for some athletes
How can you calculate protein needs (lower and upper limit)?
Protein needs based on total kcal
Derek is 180 lbs
Works out every day for 30 min.
Needs 2800 kcal/day
Lower Limit= 2800 kcal/day X 0.10= 280 kcal from protein
280 kcal/4 kcal/g protein= 70 grams protein
upper limit= 2800 kcal a day X 0.35= 980 kcal from protein

980 kcal/ 4 kcal/g protein= 245 g protein

Derek should consume 70-245g protein/day
What are Derek's Protein needs based on RDA?
Derek is 180 lbs
Works out every day for 30 min.
Needs 2800 kcal/day
Derek is 180 lbs
Works out every day for 30 min.
Needs 2800 kcal/day

Turning lbs to kg? 180lbs/2.2kg/lb=82 kg

How much protein does Derek need? 0.8g protein/ kg X 82 kg=65.6 g protien

for a 2800 kcal/day: 70-245g protien
What happens when people take in Excess protein intake?
Cannot be stored as “protein”
Stored as fat
Stress on kidneys?
the excess creates Nitrogen is excreted as urea in urine
Nitrogen in compared to Nitrogen out
Protein consumed compared to protein excreted from the body.
What are the three balances of nitrogen in the human body.
-Equilibrium= protein in equals protein out Healthy people, not growing
-Positive balance = more protein in than out
Infants, children, pregnant women, during growth
-Negative balance = less protein in than out
Starvation, severe burn victims, infection, fever
How do you determine Protein quality? and what is the score that proteins can be given?
Protein quality
Determined by digestibility (bioavailability)
Amino acid composition (amount of EAA)
Egg is most digestible form of protein
Proteins can be given a score
Protein digestibility corrected-amino acid score (PDCAAS)
What is EAA stand for?
EAA =essential amono acids
What amino acids do proteins contain?
Nonessential amino acids
Essential amino acids
Quick review- what makes an amino acid essential?
Limiting amino acid
Essential amino acid in shortest supply
why are Protein Sources Complementary?
Need to combine protein sources to get all EAA
Important for plant protein sources
Legumes + whole grains
What’s good about plant food sources of protein?
Fiber is only in plant food sources
Provide different minerals – Mg, K, etc.
Provide beneficial phytochemicals
What is Protein-energy Malnutrition (PEM), and who does it effect? what is Marasmus?
Also called protein-calorie malnutrition
Deprived of protein, energy, or both
Prevalent in Africa, Central America, South America, East/SE Asia
In US- poor, elderly, alcoholics, patients with chronic disease (AIDS, TB)

marasmus=Severe deprivation of energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals
Children are “skin and bones”
What is Kwashiorkor?
type of Protein-energy Malnutrition

Severe protein deficiency, moderate kcal deficiency
Edema-swelling from increased interstitial fluid (fluid between cells)
Fatty liver develops due to lack of transport proteins
What are the befits of Vegetarian diets?
Low energy density (possible)
High in fiber
Low in fat (possible)
High in some vitamins and minerals
What are the concerns of Vegetarian diets?
Bioavailability of minerals is low
Protein intake may be low
Need essential fatty acids, amino acids
Fiber intake may be too high
What are the Ways to eat vegetarian AND have an adequate diet?
Choose complementary protein sources
Use plant oils with EFA
Choose fortified foods
Consider vitamin/mineral supplements
What is a Food Allergies and what are common food allergies? what are the percentages in kids and in adults?
Body’s adverse immune response to specific protein in food
Most common allergens
Tree nuts

~5% children, ~2% adults
how can protein help your weight?
Weight control
High protein- low carb diets
Short term effects
Must choose lean protein
What are 3 facts about Protein supplements?
-Not necessary for most people who are meeting their calorie needs
-Not usually necessary for athletes
-May be useful during weight loss
What are Source of carbohydrates?
Some vegetables
Added sugars
What is the difference between refined and unrefined grain?
Whole grain- contains all original parts of the grain (bran, germ, endosperm)
Refined grain- only endosperm
Refined vs unrefined
What food is where most sources of carbs come from?
Most sources are plant-derived?
What elements make up carbs?
Made of elements C, H, and O (organic)
How many k/cal/gram are carbs? What is the RDA? and what percent of total energy is it one day?
-How many kcal/gram?
4 kcal/gram for digestible carbs
2 kcal/gram for sugar alcohols
0 kcal/gram for some fiber
-RDA > 130 g/day
-45%-65% of total energy for the day
What are 3 Complex Carbohydrates
and what do they consist(made of/ look like) of and how are then broken down and why do we need them? why are they complex?
Glycogen: The polysccharide glycogen is made of highly branched chains of glucose. This branched structures allows glycogen to be broken down quickly when the body needs glucose.
Different types of starch consist of either straight chains or branched chains of glucose. We consume a mixture of starches in grains, legumes, and other starchy.
Fiber (cellulose):
Most fiber is made of either strait or branched chains of monosaccharides, but the bonds that link the sugar units cannot be broken by human digestive enzymes. For example, cellulose of a fiber made up of straight chains of glucose molecules.
What are the two ways to classify carbs?
Can we get energy from them?
EX: Available = mono, disaccharides, starch
EX: Not available = fiber
-Complex vs Simple
Complex = starch, fiber
Simple = monosaccharides, disaccharides
What are the 4 Functions of Carbohydrates?
-Supplies energy
Major energy form for brain and red blood cells
-Protein sparing
Prevents gluconeogenesis
Gluconeogenesis= making glucose from other substrates (fat, protein)
What is Dietary Fiber?
Carbohydrates that are not digested in stomach and small intestine
Some Fiber → short-chain fatty acids + gas

What do Short-chain fatty acids do for the body? and what are some perhaps unwanted side effects?
-Enhance the health of the large intestine
-Energy source - yields kcal

-Gas causes flatulence, bloating
What are the Fiber Recommendations for men and women?
AI for men = 38 g/day
AI for women = 25 g/day
What are sources of fiber?
Sources of fiber
-Whole grains
What happens to nondigestible carbohydrates?(3 points to remember)
-Travel through the mouth, esophagus, stomach, & small intestine intact
-Some are broken down (fermented) by bacteria (in large intestine)
-Others pass through (roughage)
What is the process of starch (i think just starch digestion cold also be carb digestion process, ask rye) digestion in the intestines?
1. in the mouth, the enzyme salivary amylase starts breaking starch into shorter polysaccharides.
2. In the stomach, salivary amylase is inactivated by acid so no carbohydrate digestion occurs.
3. In the small intestine, most starch digestion and breakdown of disaccharides occur. Here Pancreatic amylase complete the job of breaking down starch into monosaccharides, disaccharides, and short chains of sugar units called oligosaccharides.
4. Enzymes attached to the brush border of the small intestinal villi complete the digestion of carbohydrates. Here, disaccharides and oligosaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides.
5. In the large intestine, fiber and other indigestible carbohydrates are partially broken down by bacteria to form short chain fatty acids and gas. Some fiber is excreted in the feces.
How does the body (liver pancreas) control Blood Glucose?
Regulates glucose that enters bloodstream
1. Release of insulin
2. Release of glucagon
-Maintain “homeostasis”
What are the Functions of Insulin?
-“Fed Hormone”
1. Promotes glucose storage (glycogen synthesis)
2. Increases glucose uptake by the cells
3. Reduces gluconeogenesis
-Net effect: lowers blood glucose
What are the Functions of Glucagon? and what is it sometimes called (make sure thats wut "inside quote sometimes called" really means)? what is its net effect?
-“Fasting Hormone”
1.Breakdown glycogen
2. Enhances gluconeogenesis
- Net effect:
raises blood glucose
What happens to your blood glucose if you eat this rice krispie bar PIC OF HUGE RICE KRISPIE BAR?What hormones are secreted?
Is there a Genetic link to Diabetes Mellitus--Type 1?
yes, Juvenile diabetes
not very commenly seen in adults
What is the cause and treatment of Diabetes Mellitus--Type 1?
-Cause (note from class: problem with the pancrus (figue out more details of what is going wrong here)
1. Decreased release of insulin
2. Beta cells in pancreas aren’t working
1. Carb counting
2. Insulin therapy
Is there a Genetic link to Diabetes Mellitus--Type 2? What did it used to be called and why is it not called that any more?
-used to be called adult onset diabetes but don’t call it that any more because it is now seen a lot more in children because of obesity
What is the cause of Diabetes Mellitus--Type 2 and what do these complications lead to? What are the treatments?
1. Associated with obesity
2. Defective insulin receptors on the cells, NOT RESPONDENT message is not getting through to the cells because the reseptors are not working properly
3. Oversecretion of insulin, to compensate makes more insulin because no ones responding (like knocking really loud on a door when no one is answering)

- Leads to beta cell failure

1. Medication
2. Diet therapy (weight loss)
3. Exercise can also increase the liklyhood that your reseptors will start working again
What is Ketosis?
Consequences of Uncontrolled Blood Glucose

is a… ion imbalances, dehydration, coma, death
What is Degenerative diseases and what are they caused from? What are the symptoms(what happens to you)?
Consequences of Uncontrolled Blood Glucose

-(note from class: MAY EFFECT OTHER PARTS OF THE BODY BECAUSE OF THE HI LEVELS OF GULECOSE) Nerve damage, heart disease, kidney disease, blindness
What is Atherosclerosis? What is is caused from and what are the symptoms (what happens to you)?
-fatty streaks in the blood vessels, this may cause a need for aputation, could loose feet or toes if gluecose in to hi and not treated
-Increase risk for wound infections
What is the make up of High fructose corn syrup?
42%-55% fructose, rest is glucose
Does High fructose corn syrup
really make people fat?
Hi fructose corn syrusp has increased in food and so has obeysty but this is not enough evidence have to look at other correlation's
Is high fructose corn syrup making you fat? reasons yes, and reasons no
1. Fructose is more likely to be stored as fat than other sugars
2. HFCS consumption has increased with obesity

1.Processed foods also have a lot of energy
2.Physical activity has decreased in past 25 yrs
What are examples of Sugar Alcohols? Around how many k/cal per gram does it contain? Where is it poorly absorbed? Does it cause diarrhea if consumed in excess?
-Examples: sorbitol, xylitol, mannitol
Chewing gum, candies
-Contain ~2.5 kcal/g
-Poorly absorbed in the small intestine
-May cause diarrhea if consumed in excess
What are two other names for Nonnutritive Sweeteners? Do they provide a measurable amount of energy?
-AKA artificial or alternative sweeteners
-Provide no measurable energy
Taste sweet, but used in very small quantities only need a little bit to make it taste sweet, those fake sugar packets a very small amount of it is actually the sweetener, most of the powder u see is sweetener
-Packets have filler to increase product volume
What are examples of Nonnutritive sweeteners?
1. Saccharin (Sweet-N-Low ®) found that it caused canser in lab animals but the catch is that the lab animals were eating there body wait in the stuff
2. Aspartame (NutraSweet ®)
-2 amino acids + methyl group
3. Acesulfame K (Sunnett ®)
-Heat stable in alsot of backed goods for people in diets, BECAUSE IT WILL NOT TASTE GROSS WHEN HEATE UP
4. Sucralose (Splenda ®)
-Heat stable
Is Sucralose dangerous why or why not?
Sucralose, the sweetener in Splenda, is 600 times sweeter than sucrose. The ADI is 5mg/kg of the body weight/ day, and one packet contains about 12mg of sucralose. A 154-lb (70-kg) person could consume 29 packets without exceeding the ADI.
What is Phenylketonuria (PKU)? How is it caused and what does one do about it?
-Genetic disease
-Body can’t metabolize phenylalanine (amino acid)
-Toxic effects
-Special diet is necessary
-Avoid aspartame
What is the cause of Lactose Intolerance?
-Cause: Reduction in lactase
-Lactose is not digested or absorbed
-Lactose is metabolized instead by colonic bacteria
-Results in gas, bloating, cramping, discomfort
-Lactose intolerance is not the same as a milk allergy
What are the treatments (4 things) of Lactose Intolerant?
-Determine amount you can tolerate
-Eat dairy with fat (slows stomach emptying)
Cheese and yogurt are usually tolerated well
-Use enzyme pills (Lact-Aide ®)
-Choose lactose-free dairy
What causes Dental Caries and how do you prevent it?
-AKA Cavities
-Bacteria metabolize sugars left on tooth surface
-Acid is produced
-Eats away enamel

-Limiting CHO intake
-Rinsing mouth/brushing teeth
How does fiber in our diets effect us?
-May promote weight loss, prevent chronic disease
-Can cause diarrhea
-May reduce mineral absorption
-In kids, may not consume enough energy