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85 Cards in this Set

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food
medically any substance that the body can take in and assimilate that will enable it to stay alive and grow
nutrition
the study of nutrients in foods and in the body; sometimes includes the study of human behaviors related to food
diet
the foods (and beverages) a person typically eats and drinks
nutrients
parts of food that the body needs to function and can't make on its own. (H2O, carbs, fat, proteins, vitamins and minerals)
Malnutrition
any condition that causes excess or deficiency of food energy or nutrients (undernutrition, nutrient/energy excess=overnutrition)
chronic diseases
long-duration degenerative diseases which lead to deterioration of body organs (heart disease, cancer, diabetes)
genome
the complete genetic information in the chromosomes
Nutritional genomics
The science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes and how genes affect the activity of nutrients
Energy
the capacity to do work (food=chemical energy and is measured in calories)
Organic
contains carbons (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and vitamins are organic compounds)
energy-yielding nutrients
nutrients the body can use for energy and can be used to supply building blocks for the body structures
essential nutrients
the nutrients the body can't make for itself (or can't make enough of) must be obtained from food
calories
units of energy (amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temp of a kilogram/liter of water 1 degree celsius)
gram
same weight as a cubic centimeter (cc)
dietary supplements
pills, liquids, or powders that contain purified nutrients
elemental diets
Diets composed of purified ingredients of known chemical composition (supposed to supply all essential nutrients to people who cannot eat foods)
nonnutrients
compounds other than the six nutrients present in foods and have some effect on the body (ex: phytochemicals)
phytochemicals
nonnutrient compounds in plant-derived foods (found mostly in tomatoes and carrots)
adequacy
getting all the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in the right amounts to maintain health and body weight
balance
eating foods of a number of types in proportion to each other so that the nutrients of the food you eat regularly don't take away from the nutrients you could be getting in other foods
calorie control
control of energy intake
moderation
getting enough food within your set of limits and not in excess
variety
providing a wide selection of foods in your diet
legumes
beans, peas, and lentils (inexpensive sources of protein, vitamins, minerals, and fiber that contribute little fat to the diet)
foodways
the sum of a culture's habits, customs, belies, and preferences concerning food
ethnic foods
foods associated with particular cultural subgroups within a population
omnivores
people who eat meat and plants
vegetarians
people who do not eat animal flesh and possible other animal products (milk, cheese, eggs, etc)
relapse
times of falling back into former habits, a normal and expected part of behavior change
self-efficacy
The belief in one's ability to take action and successfully perform a specific behavior
Locus of control
The assigned source of responsibility for one's life events; an internal locus of control identifies the individual's behaviors as the driving force, while an external locus of control blames chance, fate, or someother external factor
Diertary Reference Intakes (DRI)
A set of four lists of values for mearsuring nutrient intakes of healthy residents in the US and Canada. Includes the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), Adequate Intakes (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)
Daily values
values of nutrients found of food labels and based on the recommended 2,000 calorie diet. They help you compare the nutrients and energy contents of packaged foods
balance study
lab study where a person is fed a controlled diet and the intake and excretion of nutrients are measured (only valid for nutrients like calcium b/c it doesn't change while in the body)
requirement
amount of a nutrient that will just prevent the development of specific deficiency signs (you find these specifications under the DRI recommended intake value)
estimated energy requirement (EER)
average dietary energy intake predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of a certian age, gender, weight, height, and elvel of physical activity consistent with good health
food group plan
diet-planning tool that sorts foods into gropus based on their nutrient content and specifies how much of each group (by servings) people should eat of them
exchange system
diet-planning tool that organizes foods with respect to their nutrient context and calories
discretionary calorie allowance
the balance of calories remaining in a person's energy allowance after accounting for the number of calories needed to meet recommended nutrient intakes
cells
smallest units of independent life (all living things are single celled or are organisms made up of single cells)
enzyme
working proteisn that speed up a chemical reaction
fat cells
cells that sepcialize in the storage of fat and form fat tissue
inborn error of metabolism
genetic variation present from birth that may result in disease
phenylketonuria (PKU)
inborn error of metabolism that interferes with the body's handling of hte amino acid phenylalanine, with potentially serious consequences tot he brain and nervous system in infancy and childhood
Tissues
systems of cells working together to perform specialized tasks. Examples are muscles, nerves, blood and bone
Fight or Flight Reaction
the body's instinctive hormone and nerve-mediated reaction to danger. Also know as the stress response
Hypothalamus
a part of the brain that senses a variety of conditions in the blood.
Cortex
the outermost layer of something. The brain's cortex is the part of the brain where the conscious thought takes place.
Glucagon
a hormone from the pancreas that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the bloodstream
Insulin
a hormone from the pancreas that helps glucose enter cells from the blood
Pancreas
an organ with two main functions. One is the making of hormones such as insulin and the other is the making of digestive enzymes
Hormones
chemicals that are secreted by glands into the blood in response to the conditions in the body that require regulation.
Kidneys
a pair of organs that filter wastes from the blood, make urine, and release it to the bladder for excretion from the body
Liver
a large, lobed organ that lies just under the ribs. It filters the blood, removes and processes nutrients, manufactures materials for export to the other parts of the body, and destroys toxins or stores them to keep them out of the circulatory system.
Intestine
the body's long, tubular organ of digestion and the site of nutrient absorbtion
Lungs
the body's organs of gas exchange. Blood circulating through the lungs releases its carbon dioxide and picks up fresh oxygen to carry to the tissues.
Intracellular Fluid
fluid residing inside the cells that provides the medium for celluar reactions.
Extracelluar Fluid
fluid residing ouside the cells that transports materials to and from the cells
Plasma
the cell-free fluid part of blood and lymph
Capillaries
minute, weblike blood vessels that connect arteries to veins and permit transfer of materials between blood and tissues
Veins
blood vessels that carry blood with the carbon dioxide it has collected from the tissues back to the heart
Arteries
blood vessels that carry blood containing fresh oxygen supplies from the heart to the tissues
Lymph
the fluid that moves from the bloodstream into tissue spaces and then travels in its own vessels, which eventually drain back into the bloodstream
Blood
the fluid of the cardiovascular system; composed of water, red and white blood cells, other formed particles, nutrients, oxygen, and other constituents.
Body System
a group of related organs that work together to perform a function.
Organs
discrete structural units made of tissues that perform specific jobs.
Neurotransmitters
chemicals that are released at the end of a nerve cell when a nerve impulse arrives there. They diffuse across the gap to the next cell and alter the membrane of that second cell to either inhibit or excite it.
Epinephrine
the major hormone that elicits the stress response
Norepinephrine
a compound related to epinephrine that helps to elicit the stress response
Metabolism
the sum of all physical and chemical changes taking place in living cells; includes all reactions by which the body obtains and spends the energy from food
Microbes
bacteria, viruses, or other organisms, invisible to the naked eye, some of which cause diseases. Also called microorganisms
Antigen
a microbe or substance that is foreign to the body
Immune System
a system of tissues and organs that defend the body against antigens, foreign materials that have penetrated the skin or body linings
Lymphocytes
white blood cells that participate in the immune response; B-cells and T-cells
Phagocytes
white blood cells that can ingenst and destroy antigens.
T-cells
lymphocytes that attack antigens. T stands for the thymus gland of the neck, where the T-cells are stored and matured
B-cells
lymphocytes that produce antibodies. B stands for bursa, an organ in the chicken where B-cells were first identified
Antibodies
proteins, made by cells of the immune system, that are expressly designed to combine with and inactivate specific antigens
Digestive System
the body system composed of organs that break down complex food particles into smaller, absorbable products
Carbohydrates
compounds composed of single or multiple sugars. The name means "carbon and water," and a chemical shorthand for carbohydrate is CHO, signifying carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O).
Complex carbohydrates
long chains osf sugar units arranged to form starch or fiber: also called polysaccharides.
Simple carbohydrates
sugars, including both single sugar units and linked pairs os sugar units. The basic sugar unit is a molecule containing six carbon atoms, together with oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
Photosynthesis
the process by which green plants make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water using the green pigment chlorophyll to capture the sun's energy.
Chlorophyll
the green pigment of plants that captures energy from sunlight for use in photosynthesis.
Sugars
simple carbohydrates; that is, molecules of either single sugar units or pairs of those sugar units bonded together. By common usage, sugar most often refers to sucrose.