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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the chemicals in foods that are critical to human growth and function.
kilocalories (kcal)
how we measure energy
(amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1oC.)
called calorie on box
Primary source of fuel for the body, especially for the brain.

Provide 4 kcal per gram.
Fats and Oils
Fats and oils are composed of lipids, molecules that are insoluble in water.

Provide 9 kcal per gram.

An important energy source during rest or low intensity exercise.
Proteins are chains of amino acids.

Proteins can supply 4 kcal of energy per gram, but are not a primary energy source.
Fat-soluble vitamins
• Vitamins A, D, E and K
• Dissolve easily in fats and oils
Fat-soluble vitamins
Water-soluble vitamins:
• Vitamin C and the B vitamins
• Remain dissolved in water
Dietary Reference Intakes
consist of 4 values:(EAR)(RDA)(AI)(UL)
Estimated Average Requirement
• The average daily intake level of a nutrient that will meet the needs of half of the people in a particular category
Recommended Dietary Allowances
• The average daily intake level required to meet the needs of 97 – 98% of people in a particular category
Adequate Intake
• Recommended average daily intake level for a nutrient
• Based on observations and estimates from experiments
• Used when the RDA is not yet established: calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, fluoride
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
• Highest average daily intake level that is not likely to have adverse effects on the health of most people
• Consumption of a nutrient at levels above the UL is not considered safe
Estimated Energy Requirement
• Average dietary energy intake (kcal) to maintain energy balance
• Based on age, gender, weight, height, level of physical activity
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
• Describes the portion of the energy intake that should come from each macronutrient
Dietary Guidelines
• General advice for nutrition and health
• Revised every 5 years
• Most recent update was in 2000
• General guidelines for a healthful diet
• Similar to Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Food Guide Pyramid
Bread, cereal, pasta, and rice form the base of the pyramid.
6 – 11 servings recommended each day
Fruits and vegetables compose the 2nd level.
3 – 5 servings of vegetables
2 – 4 servings of fruit
Milk, yogurt, cheese
Meats, poultry, fish, eggs, nuts
2 – 3 servings per day of 3rd level groups

Fats, oils, sweets
Use sparingly
The 5-A-Day for Better Health Program
• Designed by the National Cancer Institute
• Based on evidence linking high fruit and vegetable consumption with cancer prevention
• Recommends a minimum of 5 fruits and vegetables per day
• Advertised in mass media, schools, etc.
The DASH Diet Plan
• Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
• Similar to the Food Guide Pyramid except that DASH recommends more fruits and vegetables
• Has been shown to reduce blood pressure
The Exchange System
• Designed by the American Dietetic Association and American Diabetes Association for people with diabetes
• 6 food groups or exchange lists
• Food is grouped in an exchange list based on its content of calories, carbohydrates, protein, and fat
small chemicals, usually proteins that act on other chemicals to speed up body processes.
wave of squeezing contractions that move food one direction
What is nutrition?
The science that studies food and how food nourishes out bodies and influences our health
chemicals in plants that may provide significant health benefits