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66 Cards in this Set

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Marasmus
Deficiency of almost ALL nutrients
Kwashiorkor
Protein deficiency
What vitamin defect?
Alcoholic w/ peripheral neuropathy
Vitamin B1- Thiamine Deficiency
Dry beriberi
What vitamin defect?
Alcoholic w/ confusion, ataxia and confabulation
Vitamin B1- Thiamine Deficiency
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
What vitamin defect?
Cheilosis, glossitis, corneal vascularization and seborrheic dermatitis
Vitamin B2- Riboflavin Deficiency
What vitamin defect?
Pellagra
Vitamin B3- Niacin Deficiency
What vitamin defect?
Dementia, dermatitis, diarrhea
Vitamin B3- Niacin Deficiency
What vitamin defect?
Cheilosis, glossitis, anemia, neuro problems like convulsions in infants
Vitamin B6- Pyroxidine Deficiency
What vitamin defect?
Megaloblastic anemia w/ neurologic dysfunction
Vitamin B12- Cobalmin Deficiency
What vitamin defect?
Pernicious anemia
Vitamin B12- Cobalmin Deficiency
What vitamin defect?
Megaloblastic anemia w/o neurologic dysfunction
Folic Acid Deficiency
What vitamin defect?
Scurvy
Vitamin C- Ascorbic Acid Deficiency
What vitamin defect?
Defective hydroxylation of proline and lysine
Vitamin C- Ascorbic Acid Deficiency
What vitamin defect?
Bleeding gums
Vitamin C- Ascorbic Acid Deficiency
What vitamin defect?
Night blindness
Vitamin A- Retinol Deficiency
What vitamin defect?
Squamous metaplasia of the trachea
Vitamin A- Retinol deficiency
What vitamin defect?
Alopecia, hepatocellular damage, bone changes
Vitamin A- Retinol toxicity
What vitamin defect?
Rickets
Vitamin D deficiency
What vitamin defect?
Dermatitis, enteritis, alopecia, adrenal insufficiency
Vitamin B5- Pantothenate deficiency
What vitamin defect?
Osteomalacia
Vitamin D deficiency
What vitamin defect?
Growth retardation, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, renal calculi
Vitamin D toxicity
What vitamin defect?
Hemorrhagic diathesis
Vitamin K deficiency
What vitamin defect?
Erythrocyte fragility
Vitamin E deficiency
What vitamin defect?
Dermatitis and enteritis
Biotin deficiency
Made by intestinal microbes
Vitamin K
Must be activated by the liver and kidney
Vitamin D
Synthesized by the skin
Vitamin D
Used for carboxylation of glutamyl residues
Vitamin K
Needed for formation of mesenchymal tissue
Vitamin C- Ascorbic acid
Required for production of GABA
Vitamin B6- Pyridoxine
Cofactor for glutamate decarboxylase
Vitamin B6- Pyridoxine
Component of NAD and NADP
Vitamin B3- Niacin
Can be synthesized from tryptophan
Vitamin B3- Niacin
Component of FAD and FMN
Vitamin B2- Riboflavin
Coenzyme in carbohydrate and amino acid intermediary metabolism
Vitamin B1- Thiamine
Essential in a variety of oxidation-reduction processes
Vitamin B2- Riboflavin
Required for porphyrin synthesis
Vitamin B6- Pyridoxine
Constituent of CoA
Vitamin B5- Pantothenate
Deficiency can be induced by INH and oral contraceptives
Vitamin B6- Pyridoxine
Converted to a cofactor used in transamination
Vitamin B6- Pyridoxine
Cofactor for carboxylations
Biotin
Necessary as a cofactor for dopamine conversion to NE
Vitamin C- ascorbic acid
Most common vitamin deficiency in the US
Folic Acid deficiency
Coenzyme for 1-carbon transfers
Folic Acid
(tetrahydrofolate)
What can be made out of:
Phenylalanine
▶Tyrosine▶DOPA▶Dopamine▶NE▶Epinephrine
Tyrosine can also ▶Thyroxine
DOPA can also ▶Melanin
What can be made out of:
Tryptophan
▶Melatonin, Serotonin & Niacin(▶NAD/NADP)
What can be made out of:
Histidine
Histamine
What can be made out of:
Glycine
▶Glycine▶Porphyrin▶Heme
What can be made out of:
Arginine
▶Creatinine, Urea & NO
What can be made out of:
Glutamate
▶GABA
What is the precursor for:
Tyrosine
Phenylalanine
What is the precursor for:
Thyroxine
Phenylalanine
Phe▶tyrosine▶thyroxine
What is the precursor for:
DOPA
Phenylalanine
Phe▶tyrosine▶DOPA
What is the precursor for:
Melanin
Phenylalanine
Phe▶Tyr▶DOPA▶Melanin
What is the precursor for:
Dopamine
Phenylalanine
Phe▶Tyr▶DOPA▶Dopamine
What is the precursor for:
Norepinephrine
Phenylalanine
Phe▶Tyr▶DOPA▶Dopamine▶NE
What is the precursor for:
Epinephrine
Phenylalanine
Phe▶Tyr▶DOPA▶Dopamine▶NE▶E
What is the precursor for:
Niacin
Tryptophan
What is the precursor for:
Serotonin
Tryptophan
What is the precursor for:
Melatonin
▶Tryptophan
What is the precursor for:
Histamine
Histidine
What is the precursor for:
Porphrin
Glycine
What is the precursor for:
Creatinine
Arginine
What is the precursor for:
Urea
Arginine
What is the precursor for:
Nitric Oxide
Arginine
What is the precursor for:
GABA
Glutamate