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89 Cards in this Set

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ascorbic acid
one of the two active forms of vitamin C.
beriberi
the thiamin-deficiency disease; characterized by loss of sensation in the hands and feet, muscular weakness, advancing paralysis, and abnormal heart action.
beta-carotene
a vitamin A precursor made by plants and stored in human fat tissue; an orange pigment.
bioavailability
the rate and extent to which a nutrient is absorbed and used.
cancers
diseases that result from the unchecked growth of cells.
choline
a nonessential nutrient that can be made in the body from an amino acid.
coenzyme
a small molecule that works with an enzyme to promote the enzyme’s activity. Many coenzymes have B vitamins as part of their structure.
collagen
the characteristic protein of connective tissue.
cornea
the hard, transparent membrane covering the outside of the eye.
dietary folate equivalents (DFE)
the amount of folate available to the body from naturally occurring sources, fortified foods, and supplements, accounting for differences in bioavailability from each source.
differentiation
the development of specific functions different from those of the original.
enrichment
the addition to a food of nutrients to meet a specified standard. In the case of refined bread or cereal, five nutrients have been added thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate in amounts approximately equivalent to, or higher than, those originally present and iron in amounts to alleviate the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia.
epithelial cells
cells on the surface of the skin and mucous membranes.
epithelial tissue
tissue composing the layers of the body that serve as selective barriers between the body’s interior and the environment (examples are the cornea, the skin, the respiratory lining, and the lining of the digestive tract).
erythrocyte hemolysis
rupture of the red blood cells, caused by vitamin E deficiency.
erythropoietin
a hormone, secreted by the kidneys in response to oxygen depletion or anemia, that stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells.
fibrocystic breast disease
a harmless condition in which the breasts develop lumps, sometimes associated with caffeine consumption. In some, it responds to abstinence from caffeine; in others, it can be treated with vitamin E.
follicle
a group of cells in the skin from which a hair grows.
fortification
the addition to a food of nutrients that were either not originally present or present in insignificant amounts. Fortification can be used to correct or prevent a widespread nutrient deficiency, to balance the total nutrient profile of a food, or to restore nutrients lost in processing.
free radicals
highly reactive chemical forms that can cause destructive changes in nearby compounds, sometimes setting up a chain reaction.
gout
an inherited metabolic disorder that results in excessive uric acid in the blood and urine and the deposition of uric acid in and around the joints, which causes acute arthritis and joint inflammation.
hemorrhagic disease
the vitamin K-deficiency disease in which blood fails to clot.
intermittent claudication
severe calf pain caused by inadequate blood supply; it occurs when walking and subsides during rest.
intrinsic
inside the system. Anemia that reflects a vitamin B12 deficiency caused by lack of intrinsic factor is known as pernicious anemia.
iron overload
toxicity from excess iron.
keratin
a water-insoluble protein; the normal protein of hair and nails. Keratin producing cells may replace mucus-producing cells in vitamin A deficiency.
kidney stones
crystals of salts or other components that form a concentrated mass in the kidney; also called renal calculi.
latent
the period in the course of a disease when the conditions are present but the symptoms have not begun to appear.
mucous membrane
membrane composed of mucus-secreting cells that lines the surfaces of body tissues. (Reminder Mucus is the smooth, slippery substance secreted by these cells.)
muscular dystrophy
a hereditary disease in which the muscles gradually weaken; its most debilitating effects arise in the lungs. This disease should not be confused with nutritional muscular dystrophy, a vitamin E-deficiency disease of animals characterized by gradual paralysis of the muscles.
neural tube defects (NTD)
malformations of the brain, spinal cord, or both during embryonic development.
niacin equivalents (NE)
the amount of niacin present in food, including the niacin that can theoretically be made from its precursor tryptophan present in the food.
night blindness
the slow recovery of vision after exposure to flashes of bright light at night; an early symptom of vitamin A deficiency.
osteomalacia
a bone disease characterized by softening of the bones; symptoms include bending of the spine and bowing of the legs. The disease occurs most often in adult women.
osteoporosis
literally, porous bones; reduced density of the bones. Also known as adult bone loss, it is a condition in which the bones become porous and fragile. The causes of osteoporosis are multiple.
overt
out in the open, full-blown.
pellagra
the niacin-deficiency disease. Symptoms include the “4 Ds” diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and, ultimately, death.
precursors
compounds that can be converted into other compounds; with regard to vitamins, compounds that can be converted into active vitamins; also known as provitamins.
preformed vitamin A
vitamin A in its active form.
refined grain
a product from which the bran, germ, and husk have been removed, leaving only the endosperm.
retina
the layer of light-sensitive nerve cells lining the back of the inside of the eye; consists of rods and cones.
retinol activity equivalents (RAE)
a measure of vitamin A activity; the amount of retinol that the body will derive from a food containing preformed retinol or its precursor beta-carotene.
retinol-binding protein (RBP)
the specific protein responsible for transporting retinol. Measurement of the blood concentration of RBP is a sensitive test of vitamin A status.
rickets
the vitamin D-deficiency disease in children.
scurvy
the vitamin C-deficiency disease.
sterile
free of microorganisms, such as bacteria.
tannins
compounds in tea (especially black tea) and coffee that bind iron.
teratogenic
causing abnormal fetal development and birth defects.
vitamin A
a fat-soluble vitamin. Its three chemical forms are retinol (the alcohol form), retinal (the aldehyde form), and retinoic acid (the acid form).
vitamins
essential, noncaloric, organic nutrients needed in tiny amounts in the diet.
acid-base balance
the balance maintained between acid and base concentrations in the blood and body fluids.
aldosterone
a hormone secreted from the adrenal glands that signals the kidneys to retain sodium and fluid and also regulates chloride and potassium concentrations.
branched-chain amino acids
the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are present in large amounts in skeletal muscle tissue; falsely promoted as fuel for exercising muscles.
buffers
compounds that can reversibly combine with hydrogen ions to help keep a solution’s acidity or alkalinity constant.
calcium rigor
hardness or stiffness of the muscles caused by high blood calcium.
calcium tetany
intermittent spasms of the extremities due to nervous and muscular excitability caused by low blood calcium.
cathartics
strong laxatives.
cofactor
a mineral element that, like a coenzyme, works with an enzyme to facilitate a chemical reaction.
cretinism
an iodine-deficiency disease characterized by mental and physical retardation.
dehydration
the loss of water from the body that occurs when water output exceeds water input. The symptoms progress rapidly from thirst, to weakness, to exhaustion and delirium and end in death if not corrected.
diuretics
medications that promote the excretion of water through the kidneys. Not all diuretics increase the urinary loss of potassium. Some, called potassium-sparing diuretics, are less likely to result in a potassium deficiency (see Chapter 25).
electrolyte
a salt that dissolves in water and dissociates into charged particles called ions.
electrolyte solutions
solutions that can conduct electricity.
extracellular fluid
fluid residing outside the cells; includes the fluid between the cells (interstitial fluid), plasma, and the water of structures such as the skin and bones. Extracellular fluid accounts for about one-third of the body’s water.
fluorapatite
the stabilized form of bone and tooth crystal, in which fluoride has replaced the hydroxy portion of hydroxyapatite.
fluorosis
mottling of the tooth enamel from ingestion of too much fluoride during tooth development.
glands
single cells or groups of cells that secrete materials for special uses in the body. Glands may be exocrine glands, secreting their materials “out” (into the digestive tract or onto the surface of the skin), or endocrine glands, secreting their materials “in” (into the blood).
goiter
an enlargement of the thyroid gland due to an iodine deficiency, malfunction of the gland, or overconsumption of a thyroid antagonist. Goiter caused by iodine deficiency is simple goiter.
health claims
statements that characterize the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in food and a disease or health-related condition.
hemochromatosis
iron overload characterized by deposits of ironcontaining pigment in many tissues, with tissue damage. Hemochromatosis is a hereditary defect in iron metabolism.
hemoglobin
the oxygen-carrying protein of the red blood cells.
hemosiderosis
a condition characterized by the deposition of the ironstorage protein hemosiderin in the liver and other tissues.
hypothalamus
a part of the brain that helps regulate many body balances, including fluid balance.
iron deficiency
having depleted iron stores.
iron overload
toxicity from excess iron.
iron-deficiency anemia
a blood iron deficiency characterized by small, pale red blood cells; also called microcytic hypochromic anemia.
molybdenum
a trace element.
myoglobin
the oxygen-carrying protein of the muscle cells.
pH
the concentration of hydrogen ions. The lower the pH, the stronger the acid. Thus pH 2 is a strong acid; pH 6 is a weak acid; pH 7 is neutral; and a pH above 7 is alkaline.
phytates
nonnutrient components of grains, legumes, and seeds. Phytates can bind minerals such as iron, zinc, calcium, and magnesium in insoluble complexes in the intestine, and the body excretes them unused.
pica
a craving for nonfood substances; also known as geophagia (jee-oh-FAY-jee-uh) when referring to clay-eating behavior.
pituitary gland
in the brain, the “king gland” that regulates the operation of many other glands.
potassium iodide
a medication approved by the FDA as safe and effective for the prevention of thyroid cancer caused by radioactive iodine known to be released during radiation emergencies.
renin
an enzyme, secreted by the kidneys in response to a reduced blood flow, that triggers the release of the hormone aldosterone.
steroids
medications used to reduce tissue inflammation, to suppress the immune response, or to replace certain steroid hormones in people who cannot synthesize them.
tannins
compounds in tea (especially black tea) and coffee that bind iron.
transferrin
the body’s ironcarrying protein.
water balance
the balance between water intake and water excretion that keeps the body’s water content constant.
water intoxication
the rare condition in which body water contents are too high. The symptoms may include confusion, convulsion, coma, and even death in extreme cases.