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70 Cards in this Set

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What is a problem getting food from the mouth to the esophagus that oftenly occurs in the elderly after a stroke?
oropharyngeal dysphagia
What problem has difficulty passing food through esophagus to the stomach?
esophageal dysphagia
Give 3 ways to diagnose dysphagia?
1. barium swallow
2. endoscopy
3. neurological exam
What is inflammation of the esophagus due to reflux?
gastroesophageal reflux
What can people do to ease gastroesophageal reflux disease?
1. small freq meals
2. loose clothing
3. eat slowly
4. avoid smoking
5. don't lie down
6. avoid citrus and spicy or very hot and cold foods
What are the three types of drug therapy for GERD?
1. proton-pump inhibitor
2. histamine 2 receptor blocking agents
3. antacids
What is the inflammation of the lining of the stomach?
gastritis
What are 3 causes of stomach ulcers?
1. anti-inflammatory drugs
2. zollinger-ellison syndrom
3. helibactor pylori
Name 4 ways to prevent ulcers.
1.sol fiber
2. vitamins a
3. vitamin f
4. vitamin v
How do you 6 treat peptic ulcers?
proton-pump inhibs
h2 blockers
antacids
bismuth
sucralfate-carafate
triple therapy
What is the post-gasterctomy diet like?
1. depends on new stomach size
2.small freq meals
3. soft,low fat
4. lots of complex carbs
5. avoid sweets and sugars
6. limit liquids during meals
7. some food intolerance
8. withheld until few days later after surgery
9. fluids at first given intravenously
10.ice chips and sips allowed 24-48 hours after
11.progress from clear liquids to solid foods on 4th or 5th day
When the pyloric sphincter is removed, bypassed or disrupted, food quickly passes into jejunum?
dumping syndrome
What occurs when the intestinal contents become hypertonic in dumping syndrome?
fluid moves in and hyperperistalsis occurs and 2 hours later blood glucose falls a lot
What are some guidelines following gastric surgery?
1. lie down after eating to ease passage of food
2. watch for lactose intolerance
What are 4 complications of gastric surgery?
1. bacterial overgrowth intestine
2. anemia- iron not converted by gastric acid to absorbable form
3. b12 deficiency
4. bone disease
What is constipation?
Fewer than three bowel movements per week.
What are the causes of constipation? 7
1. low food intake
2. low-fiber diet
3. inactivity
4. systemic disorder
5. neurologic conditions
6. depression
7. meds
How to treat Contstipation?
4 ways
Add fiber.
Drink lots of fluids.
Add prunes or prune juice to diet.
Increase exercise.
Who is at most risk of diahrrea?
children
What are 5 ways to treat diahrrea?
1. replace fluids and electrolytes
2. avoid caffeine
3. avoid high seasoned foods
4. low fiber and low far
5. small freq meals
What the lactose deficiency that the person is born with and has deficient lactase?
primary lactose intolerance
What is the lactose deficiency that the person has gradual diminishment of lactase activity and malnutrition or radiation damage and usually ethnics more at risk?
secondary lactose intolerance
What are the four symptoms of lactose intolerance?
cramps
distention
diarrhea
gas
How do you treat lactose intolerance?
restrict lactose containing products
What is the motility disorder of small or large intestine?
irritable bowel syndrome
How can you treat 2 steatorrhea?
1. modify type of fat with mct oil
2. enzyme replacement therapy
What are the two causes of pancreatis/
gallstones and alcohol
How do you get cystic fibrosis?
Caused by a mutation in the gene for a membrane protein that transports chloride ions that results in secretions by exocrine glands
What kind of foods should be eaten with cystic fibrosis?
high fat and high kcal and liberal use of salt and salty foods
What disease is due to an abnormal immune response to wheat gluten and related proteins found in rye and barley/
celiac disease
What does the immune reaction to gluten cause in celiac disease?
intestinal mucosa changes
What nutrients are malabsorbed?
macronuts, fat sol vitanmins, electrolytes, calcium, magnesium,zinc,iron,folate,and v b12
What is pouches in intestinal wall?
diverticulosis
How can you treat divericulosis?
high fiber diet
Name five diseases that may have steatorrhea as a symptom?
1. pancreatitis,cystic fibrosis, crohn's celiac, motility disorders
What is when an immune response causes inflammation in bowels?
1. inflammatory bowel disease
Where can Crohn's disease occur?
anywhere, in ileum and colon most often
What disease causes narrowing of the lumen and strictures, plus fistulas or ulcers maybe cancer?
crohn's
what inflammatory bowel disease involves the rectum and colon?
Ulcerative colitis
What ibdisease involves ulceration and tissue erosion?
ulcerative bowel disease
What is the hormone that enables cells to use glucose from the blood and store energy?
insulin
What diabetes type is inherited and immune cells attack and destroy the Beta cells of the pancreas?
type 1
Which type of diabetes requires insulin?
1
What type of diabetes is resistant to insulin?
2
These ppl ususally develop what? obese, ethnics,over 45 ppl, women with children over 9 pounds?
type 2 diabetes
What is fasting plasma glucose to diagnose diabetes?
greater than or equal to 126 mg/dl
What is random plasma glucose to diagnose diabetes?
greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl with thirst, frequent urination, and weight loss
What are the percentages of carbs for diabetics?
45-60%
How much protein should diabetics be getting?
10-20%
How much fat should a diabetic getting?
less than 30%
Concerning carbs for diabetics, what is more important the type or the amount?
The amount
How much saturated fat or cholesterols for diabetics?
saturated 10%
cholest 300 mg
If you have hypoglycemia..how much carbs shouod you have?
10-15 g
What should a diabetic diet look like?
1. low fat diet
2. simple sugars instead of complex carbs
3. more protein than regular diet
4.consistent amount of carbs from day to day
Are sugar alcohols calorie free?
no, 2-4 cal per g
How do fatty deposits appear on artery walls?
immune response to artery damage
What is the most common cvd and leading cause of death?
congestive heart failure
In heart patients, how should LDL, triglycerides, and blood cholesterol and hdls look?
ldl less than 100 mg/dl
triglycerides-less than 150
cholesterol-less than 200
and hdl-greater than or equal to 60
Heart patients:
carbs?
sat fats?
monounsat fats?
polyunsat fats?
protein?
50-60% carbs
no sat fats
monoun- 20%
poly- 10%
How much cholesterol?
less than 200 mg/dl
If one was to add 5-10 grams of soluble fiber to the their diet, how would their ldl levels look?
5% reduction
How do plant sterols work?
reduce intestinal absorption of cholesterol
How much soy and how does it benefit heart patients?
25 grams of soy to replace animal fat reduces ldl
What are the benefits of fish?
to heart attack patients
1. reduce inflamm response
2. reduce clot time
3. lower trigly levels
3. stabilize heart rhythm
How much should cardiac patients lose?
10% of their weight
What kind of diet should be adopted following a heart attack?
1. low sodium
2. soft foods
What two factors make up hypertension?
Increased cardiac output with more arteriole resistance
How much sodium should be taken in if have CHF?
2000-3000 mg daily
Should CHF patients have alcohol?
no
What is an ischemic stroke versus a hemorhaggic stroke?
ischemic- embolus
hemorhaggic-rupture of blood vessel