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8 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How many cattle are born every year and what is the break down?
US: 100 million
33 million beef
20-500head per herd
15 million on feed

Canada: 5 million beef cattle
Major Breeds and where they adapt
Bos Taurus-cold weather
British: Hereford (white neck and face and red body with droopy ears)
Angus (black)
Continental: Charolais (all white)
Simmental (used for milk as well, black thru yellow-red)

Bos Indicus (Afro-asian, tropical)
Brahman (hump back)
Red Sindi & Sahiwal
Beef Cow-Calf Cycle (seasons)
usually calve in the spring, @pasture over the summer, wean in the fall when about 250-300kg (fattened), over winter preserved feed/pasture (late pregnancy)
Weaned Calf (2 steps)
gain weight slowly
a lot more forage than grain
typically at a small farm

rapid weight gain
finishing: a lot more grain than forage
typically at a feed lot
Cow-Calf Operation (2 options)
1. Purebred (produce breed stock)
2. Commercial (produce a weaned calf) 75-85% rate due to low conception rate

*Major source of nutrition is forage
-fresh or perserved pature
Have 1st calf at 2 years old
breed heifers @ 12-15 months old
% in estrus directly related to weight

Adult Cows
% estrus related directly to nutrition

remain in heard til 10+ years

usually check for pregnancy in fall
sell open cows and replace with heifers
Body Condition Score (out of 9)

Pregnancy factor
2- very thin (some fat over backbone but none over ribs

5-moderate (fat over ribs feels spongy)

8- fat (large fat deposits over ribs, around tailhead and below vulva)

Each bs represents about 40kg BW

Pregnancy rate 120 days after breeding:
5 & 6 = 86% 7 = 95%
avoid below 4 (73% and below)
Most likely die from:
dz: 1 or 2 out of the herd are affected

poor nutrition: whole herd affected