Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/186

Click to flip

186 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the five diseases that are nutrient related.
Heart disease,cancers,strokes,accidents,diabetes mellitis
What is a nutrient?
Substances that the body uses for growth and repair of tissues, and maitenance.
What is an essential nutrient?
Nutrients that foods must supply.
What is nutrient density?
A measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the energy it provides.
What is a food of high nutrient density consist of?
More nutrients and less kcalories.
Name three types of nutrients that provide calories.
carbs,fats,proteins
How many calories are from carbs?
4 kcal/g
How many calories are from protein?
4 kcal/g
How many calories are from fat?
9 kcal/g
How many calories are from alcohol?
7 kcal/g
Name some factors that influence food choices.
Body Weight,Availability, Emotions,Habit,Personal preference,heritage
Give the six components of a nutritious diet.
Adequacy,balance,kcalorie control,nutrient density,moderation,variety
Why were dietary reference intakes developed?
So people can effectively define the amounts of energy, nutrients,and other dietary components, and physical activity that best support health.
What is the average daily amount of nutrient that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function in half the healthy people of a given age and gender group?
Estimated Average Requirements
What is the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people?
Recommended Dietary Allowance
What is the average daily amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion?
Adequate Intake
What is used when an RDA cannot be determined?
Adequate Intake
What is the maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health affects?
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
Name the six types of nonnutrients.
fibers,phytochemicals,pigments, additives,alcohols,ethers
What is a non nutrient compound that are found in plant-derived foods that have biological activity in the body?
phytochemicals
What type of compound has no carbon?
inorganic compounds
What type of bonds do organic compounds have?
-carbon carbon
-carbon hydrogen
What type of nutrient never changes throughout the body?
mineral
What do lipids,proteins,vitamins,and carbs contain?
H,O,Carbon,Nitrogen sometimes and even other elements
What supplies essential nutrients?
Food
What three nutrients provide energy?
Carbs,lipids,and protein
What is a nutrient that is required by the body in large amounts?
macronutrient
Give 3 examples of macronutrients.
-carbs,fat,protein
What nutrient has nitrogen?
protein
What is a nutrient that is required by the body in only small amounts?
micronutrient
What unit is used to measure food energy?
joule
What is the amount expended when one kilogram is moved one meter by force of one newton?
work energy in joules
What is the unit that measures heat energy?
kcalories
How many cals are in one kcalorie?
1000
How do you convert kcals to kilojoules?
You multiply the kcals by 4.2.
What is the energy released from carbs,fats,and proteins?
calories
How many kcals are in 1 gram of carb,1 gram of protein,and 1 gram of fat?
4,4,9
Which nutrient has the greatest energy density?
FAT
How do you calculate the energy available from food?
Multiply the number of grams of carbs,protein,and fat by 4,4,9 and then add them together!
How much fat intake should be aquired?
20-35% a day
Does alcohol give energy? If so, how much?
Yes, 7 kcal/gram
What does alcohol do to the body?
Interferes with body processes
What happens to bonds when proteins,carbs,and fats are used?
bonds break
How is energy released when bonds break?
-heat,electric impulses to brain and nerves to synthesize body compounds and to move muscles
What happens when nutrients are not used?
Arranged into storage compounds and weight is gained
What is energy density?
Measure of the energy a food provides relative to the amount of food
What are proteins?
Make up the muscle and skin-and participate in activities such as digestion and energy metabolism
What do vitamins do?
facilitate the release of energy
Can minerals be destroyed?
no
What do minerals do?
influence properties of body
What does water do?
participates in metabolic reactions and is a medium for transport
What is genetic material in chromosomes of a cell?
genome
What is how nutrients effect activities of genes and how genes affect the activities of nutrients
nutrient genomics
Which group receives the medicine and which doesn't?
control-placebo
experiment-actual meds
What is the nutrient intake values for healthy people in the US and Cananda?
DRI
What is the average dietary energy intake that maintains energy balance and good health in a person of a given age,gender,weight,height,and level of physical activity?
estimated energy requirement
What percentage of the carbs are needed daily?
45-65%
What percentage of the fat are needed daily?
20-35%
What percentage of the protein is needed daily?
10-35%
What are the ranges of intakes of the energy nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduce risk of disease?
acceptable macronutrient ranges
Who does the estimation of adequate energy and nutrient intake appy to?
Healthy people
Do these recommendations apply to all people?
Yes, but not for individually needs.
How is nutrient intake met successfully?
Variety of foods taken in.
What to reccomendedations appy to?
daily intakes
What is a nutrient deficiency over time?
malnutrition
What is the deficiency of energy?
undernutrition
Give some symptoms of malnutrition.
skin rash, depression,hair loss,bleeding gums,muscle spasms,night blindedness
Give some symptoms of undernutrition.
thin,lose muscle,prone to disease
What is overnutrition?
obesity,heart disease and diabetes
What occurs during a sudden nutrient overdose?
hot flashes,yellow skin,rapid heart rate,and low blood pressure
What does a RD do to prepare a nutrition assessment?
history,height and weight,exam,lab tests
What may a person that lacks iron in their diet have?
primary deficiency
How may a RD address a primary deficiency?
with history
How may a person that has a body that doesnt absorb enough,exretes too much or uses something inappropriately have?
secondary deficiency
How may an RD address a secondary deficiency?
present health and history
What is a deficiency in early stages, before the outward signs have appeared?
subclinical deficiency
Why does one feel weak during an iron deficiency?
-new rbcs cannot replace old and dying ones so body feels short of o2
Who sets goals to improve health during the next 10 years?
Healthy people group
How are national nutrition surveys used?
Results are used to establish public policies on nutrition education and food assistance programs and the regulation of food supply
What is a behavior that is associated with an elevated frequency of a disease but is not proved to be casual?
risk factor
How do risk factors appear?
They persist over time and cluster.
What is a typical portion size for a starch?
1 slice of bread
What is a typical portion size of a fruit?
1 small apple
What is a typical portion size of milk?
1 cup
What is a typical portion size of other carbohydrates?
2 cookies
What is the typical portion size for nonstarchy vegetables?
1/2 cup cooked carrots
How many grams of carbs,protein,fat are in a portion of starch?
15 grams,3 grams,0-1 grams
How many grams of carbs,protein,and fat are in a portion of fruit?
15,0,0
How many carbohydrates,protein,fat are in a portion of fat-free milk?
12 g,8 g ,0-3 g
How many carbs,protein,and fat are in a portion of reduced-fat milk?
12,8,5
How many carbs,proteins,and fat grams are in a portion of whole milk?
12,8,8
How many carbs,proteins,and fats are in a portion of other carbs?
15,varies,varies
How many carbs,proteins,and fats are in a portion of nonstarchy vegetables?
5,2,0
How much energy is in one portion of starch?
80 kcal
How much energy is in one portion of fruit?
60 kcal
How much energy is in one cup of fat free milk?
90 kcal
How much energy is in 1 cup of reduced fat milk?
120 kcal
How much energy is in 1 cup of whole milk?
150 kcal
How much energy is in other carbs?
varies
How much energy is in a half cup of cooked carrots?
25 kcal
Give an example of very lean meat portion size?
1 oz white chicken no skin
Give an example of lean meat portion size?
1 oz lean beef
Give an example of medium fat meat portion size?
1 oz ground beef
Give an example of high fat meat portion size?
1 oz pork sausage
How many grams of carbs are in meat?
No carbs.
How many grams of protein are in 1 oz of meat?
7 grams
How many g of fat are in 1 oz of chicken?
0-1
How many g of fat are in 1 oz of lean beef?
3
How many g of fat are in 1 0z of ground beef?
5
How many g of fat are in 1 oz of pork sausage?
8
How many kcals does 1 oz of chicken provide?
35 kcal
How much energy does 1 oz of lean beef provide?
55 kcal
How much energy does 1 oz of ground beef provide?
75 kcal
How much energy does 1 oz of pork sausage provide?
100 kcal
What is the typical portion size in the fat group?
1 tsp butter
How much g of fat are in 1 tsp of butter?
5 g
How much energy does 1 tsp of butter provide?
45 kcal
This term means to provide all the essential nutrients,fiber,and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health.
adequacy
What term means to provide foods in proportion to each other and in proportion to the body's needs?
balance
What is the management of food energy intake?
kcal or energy control
What is the measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the energy it provides?
nutrient density
What is a term used to denote foods that contribute energy but lack protein,vitamin,and minerals?
empty-kcalorie foods
What is providing enough but not too much of a substance?
moderation
What is eating a wide selection of foods within and among the major food groups?
variety
What is diet-planning tools that sort foods into groups based on nutrient content and specify the amounts of foods that people should eat from each group?
food group plans
What are plants of the bean and pea family with seeds that are rich in protein compared with other plant-derived foods?
legumes
What are the five food groups?
fruit,vegetable,grain,meat/legumes,and milk
Which vegetable delivers vitamin B folate?
dark green vegetables
Which vegetable provides vitamin A?
orange vegetables
Which vegetable provides iron and protein?
legume
Which vegetable provides carbs?
starchy vegetables
What are the kcalories remaining in a person's energy allowance after consuming enough nutrient-dense foods to meet all nutrient needs for a day?
discretionary kcalorie allowance
What is a measure developed by the USDA for assessing how well a diet conforms to the recommendations of the USDA food guide and the dietary guidelines for americans?
healthy eating index
What is a diet planning tool that organizes foods by their proportions of carbohydrate,fat,and protein?
exchange list
What are foods that are treated to change their physical,chemical and microbiological, or sensory properties?
processed food
What is the addition of nutrients to a food that were not originally present or present in insignificant amounts.
fortified
What is the process in which the coarse parts of a food are removed?
refined
What is the addition to a food of nutrients that were lost during processing so that the food will meet a specified standard?
enriched
What is a grain milled in its own entirety?
whole grain
What is processed soybean protein used in vegetarian products such as soy burgers?
textured vegetable protein
What are foods that sub for and resemble another food, but are nutritionally inferior to it with respect to the vitamin,mineral,or protein content.
imitation foods
What are foods that are designed to replace other foods?
food substitutes
What are reference values developed by the FDA specifically for use on food labels?
daily values (DV)
What are statements that characterize the quantity of a nutrient in a food?
nutrient claims
What are statements that characterize the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in a food and a disease or health-related condition?
health claims
What are statements that characterize the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in a food and its role in the body?
structure-function claims
What is the criterion for a structure-function claim?
it must not mention a disease or its symptoms
Which statement is a health claim, and which is a structure-function claim:
-may reduce the risk of heart disease
-promotes a healthy heart
1-health claim
2-structure function claim
How much of your grain consumption should be whole grains?
half
What percentage of kcalories should you get from saturated fats?
10 percent from sat fats
How many milligrams daily should you limit your diet to?
less than 300 milligrams
What should you limit your daily fat intake to?
twenty to thirty five percent of your daily intake
What kind of unsaturated fats should you chose?
poly and mono unsat fats
WHAT IS THE SPHINCTER BETWEEN THE STOMACH AND ESOPHAGUS CALLED?
LOWER ESOPHAGEAL
WHAT IS IT CALLED THAT YOUR STOMACH ALLOWS YOU TO EAT LARGE AMOUNTS OF FOOD?
ADAPTIVE RELAXATION
WHAT DOES CHYME CONSIST OF? 5 THINGS
MUCUS,WATER,HCL,PEPSIN,DIGESTING FOOD WITH NUTRIENTS,
WHAT IS THE TOP AND BOTTOM OF THE STOMACH?
FUNDUS AND ANTRUM
WHAT IS THE SPHINCTER OF THE STOMACH THAT CONNECTS TO THE SMALL INTESTINE?
PYLORIC SPHINCTER
WHAT CHEMICAL STOPS STARCH DIGESTION?
HCL
WHY IS HCL ADDED?
DENATURES PROTEINS HELPS TO UNCOIL THEM
WHAT ARE THE 3 CELLS OF THE STOMACH?
CHIEF,PARIETAL,MUCOUS
WHAT DO THE CHIEF CELLS SECRETE?
PEPSINOGEN AND GASTRIC LIPASE
WHAT DO THE PARIETAL CELLS SECRETE?
HCL AND INTRINSIC FACTOR
WHAT DO THE MUCOUS CELLS SECRETE?
MUCUS AND BICARBONATE
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF PEPSINOGEN?
TURNS INTO PEPSIN TO BREAK DOWN LARGE PROTEIN
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF GASTRIN?
TRIGGERS HCL PRODUCTION
WHAT DOES GASTRIC LIPASE DO?
BREAKS DOWN FAT
WHAT 3 TYPES OF PROBLEMS CAN EFFECT FOOD CAPACITY?
ANOREXIA,CANCER,GASTRIC BYPASS
WHERE DOES THE MOST OCCUR IN THE SMALL INTESTINE?
JEJUNUM
WHAT IS DIFFERENT ABOUT A PERSON'S SMALL INTESTINE SLIDE THAT HAS MALNUTRITION?
SMOOTH SLIDE OPPOSED TO A NORMAL BUMPY SLIDE THAT WOULD INCREASE AREA ABSORPTION
WHERE DOES THE LYMPH DEPOSIT INTO?
THORACIC DUCT
WHAT DO GOBLET CELLS DO AND WHERE ARE THEY FOUND?
SMALL INTESTINE-SECRETE MUCUS
NAME THREE THINGS THE PANCREAS SECRETES.
BICARB,INSULIN,ENZYMES
WHAT IS CYSTIC FIBROSIS?
CLOGGED PANCREAS
WHAT DO THE INTESTINAL CELLS DO?
BREAK DOWN MALTOSE,LACTOSE,AND SUCROSE
WHAT CARRIER CARRIES FRUCTOSE IN?
GLUT 5
WHAT DOES GLUT 2 CARRY OUT OF THE CELL?
GLUCOSE,GALACTIOSE,AND FRUCTOSE
HOW IS GLUCOSE CARRIED IN DURING ACTIVE TRANSPORT?
BY WAY OF SGLT 1.
WHAT IS THE ABSORPTION THAT HAS SOMETHING MOVE INTO AN AREA OF LOWER CONCENTRAION?
SIMPLE DIFFUSION
WHAT IS PINOCYTOSIS?
CELL ENGULFS NUTRIENTS
WHAT IS THE FUEL OF THE GI TRACT THAT ALSO STIMULATES THE PROLIFERATION OF ENTEROCYTES?
GLUTAMINE
WHAT STIMULATES CELLS TO PRODUCE GLUTAMINE?
AMINO ACIDS
NAME THE 3 THINGS THAT ENTER THE LYMPH.
MONOGLYCERRIDES,LONG CHAIN FATTY ACIDS, AND FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS
WHAT DOES THE LIVER DO?
PRODUCES BILE AND HAS FIRST CHOICE OF WHAT HAPPENS TO NUTRIENTS
WHAT DOES THE LARGE INTESTINE DO?
ABSORBS LEFTOVER WATER AND NA, K, AND CHLORIDE
WHAT HOLDS WASTE?
RECTUM