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60 Cards in this Set

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_____ is a symptom or illness from food or water that contains an infectious agent, poisonous substance, or protein causing an immune reaction.
food borne illness
How many people report food-borne illness each year?
76 million
Which type of food borne illness causes more symptoms?
infectious agent
What is the leading cause of food borne illness?
microorganisms
Incidence of food-illness symptoms occur in 1 in ____ people annually.
10-30
How many people die each year from food-illness?
9000
Age group that severity of food-illness is high in?
1) very young
2) very old
3) impared immunity
Infections of food-borne illness result form ________.
bacteria contamination
_____ are caused by bacteria.
intoxications
____ & ____ are the most common microbes causing food-borne illnesses.
bacteria and viruses
Of the bacteria, themost common food contaminants are _____ & _____.
1) capylobacter jejuni
2) salmonella
symptoms of allergic reactions to food
1) rashes
2) headaches
3) bowel disturbances
foods that most often cause allergic reactions
1) cow's milk
2) eggs
3) nuts
4) citrus fruit
5) seafood
6) wheat
7) corn
8) soy
Most food allergies are reactions to ___ contained in the food.
proteins
____ is a govn't agencie that includes all food except meat, poultry, and eggs.
FDA
______ is a govn't agency that contains meat, poultry, and eggs.
USDA
_____ is a govn't agency that contains pesticide safety and sets tolerance levels.
EPA
% of seriousness of food safety in kitchen
20%
Sources of problems of food safety in kitchen
1) cutting boards and utensils
2) improper food storage
3) unsanitary handling
4) incomplete cooking
Cold foods should stay cold at __ degrees or less
40
frozen foods should be frozen at __ degrees or less
0
controls of microbes during processing
1) drying
2) freezing
3) fermenting
4) heat
5) chemical preservations
6) irradiation
concerns with raw undercooked foods
1) due to hepatitis
2) parasites
3) viral infections
common environmental food contaminants
1) mercury
2) lead
3) cadmium
_____ is a substance put in food to enhance its appearance and quality.
food additives
uses of food additives
1) reduce risk of microbial contamination
2) improve nutrient quality
3) enhance appearance
4) increase shelf life
5) meet demand for variety
_____ are used in baked goods and beverages to prevent rancidity and enhance flavor.
antimicrobial agents
salt, vinegar, and sugar are ex. of ____
antimicrobial agents
_____ make water unavailable to microorganisms.
antimicrobial agents
sulfite is an ex. of ____
antioxidant
antioxidants aren't for use in _____ foods.
raw
____ & ____ are antioxidants that are useed in snack and baked goods.
BHA & BHT
Are artificial colors still used in foods?
only a few
____ are the largest group of food additives
flavoring agents (ex. spice)
MSG is an ex. of a _____
flavoring agent
nutrition related disorders during pregnancy
1) Gestational diabetes
2) preeclampsia
3) neural tube defects
4) FAS
A full term pregnancy lasts __ weeks
38-42
_____ consists of conception to 13th week
1st trimester
____ consists of 14-27th week.
2nd trimester
___ consists of 28-40th week.
3rd trimester
____ is day 15 to 8th week.
embryonic stage
After the __ week, the developing baby is called a fetus.
8th
When are embryos extremely vulnerable to teratogens?
during 1st trimester
During what time does the fetus gain 3/4 of it's weight?
3rd trimester
low birth weight of a baby is weighing less than ___ pounds.
5.5
____ babies are born b4 38 weeks and may be low birth weight babies.
preterm
average normal weight gain during pregnancy
25-35 pounds
weight gain during pregnancy for adolescents and underweight woment
28-40 pounds
weight gain during pregnancy for overweight women
15-24 pounds
An additional ____ kcal/day may be required in the 2nd and 3rd trimester.
300
g/day of protein during pregnancy
60
g/day of carbs. during pregnancy
atleast 130 g/day
micronutrients that are most critical during pregnancy
-folate
-vit. A,B12,C,D
-calcium
-iron
-zinc
-sodium
-iodine
The need for fluids increases to ___ liters/day during pregnancy.
3
reasons fluid is increased during preganancy
1) mother's blood volume
2) body temp.
3) amniotic fluid to cushion fetus
4)combat fluid retention & constipation
5) preventing UTI's
____ is a hormone respnsible for the synthesis of milk.
prolactin
When is prolactin produced?
toward the end of preganancy
Prolactin is suppressed by ____& ____ until childbirth.
estrogen and progesterone
____ is the 1st milk produced.
colostrum
things colostrum is rich in
1) proteins
2) antibodies
3) vitamins
4) minerals