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88 Cards in this Set

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Neural tube birth defects decreased by 70% since _____ was added to grains in the US in 1998.
folic acid
The "Disease of the 4 Ds" described in class was _____________. What are the 4 Ds?
pellagra dermatitis ("Mitten"), diarrhea, dementia and death
Pellagra is caused by _______________
niacin (vitamin B3) deficiency
The biggest cause of being locked up in an insane asylum in the south in the 1930s was __________.
pellagra
What historical era characterized the 1930s? What does this have to do with nutrition?
The Great Depression. Widespread poverty resulted in severe malnutrition, including specific nutrient inadequacies like niacin.
A. The biggest cause of blindness in the United States is __________________.
B. The biggest cause of amputations below the knee in the United States is __________________.
C. The biggest cause of kidney failure in the United States is __________________.
diabetes
Neural tube defects occur in the _____ trimester of pregnancy.
first
Pellagra was an especially serious health problem in what region of the US?
the south
Homocysteine is a _________________
substance that builds up when folic acid, and/or vitamins B6 and B12 are inadequate.
There are 10 teaspoons of sugar in one can of regular soda. Each teaspoon weighs 4 grams. How many
calories does that provide?
10 tsps x 4 gram/tsp x 4 kcal/gram =160
What vitamin recently decreased the incidence of birth defects when it was added to grains in the US?
folic acid
How big was the percentage reduction in neural tube birth defects after it was added to grains?
up to 70%
The same addition decreased the incidence of _____ by 15% as well
stroke
What is the "neural tube"?
the brain and spinal cord
What is spina bifida and what does it have to do with nutrition?
a severe birth defect along the spinal cord; inadequacy of folic acid can be one of the causes.
If a snack is called a "high energy bar," it means that it _____________________.
has a high amount of calories. (calories is the unit in which energy is measured.)
The BMI is a ratio of _______________________
weight/square meter (e.g. kg/m x m) used to assess body size.
Enzymes were described as being like _________ or _____________.
scissors staplers
The body's first need is always for _________________.
energy
CHO is the abbreviation for _________________.
energy
Which nutrients provide energy? _________, ___________ and __________________.
Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat
What do these word parts mean? -ase ___________ emia___________ neo ___________
-ose ___________ -lysis or lytic ___________ -yl ___________ -itis ___________
-osis ___________ gen ___________ omni ___________ demic or demos___________
pan ___________ gluc or glyc___________ osteo___________ a- or an- ___________
chrome__________ chron______________ ology_____________ som_______ encephal ________
path ________ homeo_________ amin/ammon _______ lip_______ ster_______
What do these word parts mean?
-ase enzyme
-emia in the blood
neo new
-ose carbohydrate
-lysis or lytic breaking
-yl attached to
-itis inflammation of
-osis existence/presence of something
gen making
omni all
demic or demos people
pan all
gluc or glyc related to glucose (an important simple sugar)
osteo bone
a- or an- not or not having
chrome color
chron time
ology study of
som body
encephal brain
path disease
homeo same
amin/ammon contains nitrogen
lip lipids
ster steroid involvement
When were RDAs (Recommended Dietary Allowances) first developed and why?________________
early 1940s to improve the poor health of men (malnourished during the Great Depression) in order for them to be drafted to fight in WWII.
"Phytochemical" means ----------______________________ and some examples are: _________________
plant chemical lycopene, luteine, anthocyanin, polyphenols, (lots)
The category called Macronutrients includes these three categories:: __________________
Carbohydrate, Lipids and Protein
The category called Micronutrients includes these two categories: __________________
vitamins and minerals
The March of Dimes promotes prevention of birth defects by telling women to _______________
take a multivitamin daily, and to have already been taking one well before pregnancy occurs.
Protein that is not used to make muscles or other body substances will end up _______________.
burned for fuel
The kcals per gram of carbohydrate, protein & fat, respectively: ___, ___, and ____
4,4,9
Protein burned for fuel results in more ______________.
nitrogen waste to get rid of
High homocysteine is associated with low intake of ________ and _____________ .
folic acid and B12
A key indications that nutrition information might be misleading is that the person promoting it is ___.
selling it
What is "n" in a research study and why is it important?
n=number of subjects (people, rats, etc.) As a rule, larger n studies are more likely to reflect a representative picture.
What is a peer reviewed journal why is it important?
professional journals that have committees of scientific experts who review the reports before they are allowed to be printed. Things published in non peer-reviewed journals (like opinion papers on the internet) have more opportunity to have erroneous conclusions, etc. Less trustworthy, in general.
What is a placebo? A placebo effect? "Placebo controlled"? Why are they important?
a fake treatment or pill word means "I will please" in Latin. Improvement or effect of a treatment just because a treatment occurred . that is, not specific to the substance or treatment being tested. Placebo controlled means that the control group got a treatment that was indistinguishable from the real treatment, so the effects of just getting any kind of treatment will be evened out. Because the mind is a wonderful thing, and just thinking something works is enough for some folks to perceive an effect. So it makes it hard to figure out if a treatment really worked at all.
What is a control group and why is it important?
If you have nothing to compare it with, it is hard to show an effect of a treatment.
What is meant by "p<.01"?
The chance that a certain result was found was due to chance alone is less than one out of 100.
What is anecdotal" evidence and why is it important?
People telling stories, reporting observations. An important clue for researchers to get new ideas to study carefully. But alone, they are the weakest kind of evidence one might present.
Nutrient density is defined as the ____
nutrients contained per kcals in the food.
What is experimental evidence and why is it important?
This means that an actual intervention study was done . not just observing things and thinking about them.
What is epidemiologic evidence and why is it important?
Information that compares large groups of people in relation to some factor . like Southerners vs Northerners, etc.
What is clinical trial evidence and why is it important?
The experimental evidence has accumulated to the point that they are now able to test it on humans.
What is meant by a positive correlation? A negative correlation?
Two things seem to be related in some way. + = as one increases, the other increases, or as one decreases the other decreases. Graphs go from bottom left to top right. - == they go in opposite directions - the more of one the less of the other. Graph goes from upper left to bottom right.
It is important to remember that correlational data cannot show _____________________.
cause and effect. It can only say that they were associated (correlated) but it can't say that one thing CAUSED the other.
What is meant by a "double blind" study and why is it important?
Neither the scientist nor the subjects knows who got what treatment. It helps eliminate bias (conscious or unconscious) in interpreting the data.
Kcals is a unit of _____________.
energy
What is meant by "random assignment"
People (subjects) are distributed into the experimental group or the control group totally at random (without bias)
What does a Hawthorne or Rosenthal effect illustrate.
The importance in our expectations and emotions in what we perceive and how we act.
Vitamin C deficiency is called __________. What was the influence of this condition on political
balance among European nations during the "Age of Discovery"? (When was that, anyway?)
Scurvy Wikipedia: " The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European ships traveled around the world in search of new trading routes and partners to feed burgeoning capitalism in Europe. They also were in search of trading goods such as gold, silver and spices. In the process, Europeans encountered peoples and mapped lands previously unknown to them. Among the most famous explorers of the period were Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama, and Ferdinand Magellan."
What had a similar effect on world leadership in the 1800s?
The discovery of germs and establishment of a clean water system in London so people stopped dying from cholera, etc. The city prospered over others.
The chemical pathways in the body were described in class as being like ________________
assembly lines
In class, the lumen of the intestine was described as being like ________________
sieve with small holes
Some examples of a phytochemicals are ________________
pigments
In class, the intestinal tract was described as being sort of like ________________
a tube (or a paper towel roll) with small holes all along it going from the mouth to the bottom, with an empty space inside (called the lumen.) Food travels through, but if it can't be broken apart enough to be small enough to be absorbed through the holes, the food does not enter the body.
Homeostasis is the term for ________________. What does it have to do with this class?
staying the same (systems) Many aspects of trying to keep one's body chemistry in the survivable range are dependent on nutrients.
Acid in the stomach helps ________________
kill germs
_____ were described as workers along the chemical pathways of the body.
enzymes
The "tools" of the workers are _____
cofactors
The "tools" are often -______________ and ______________-.
vitamins and minerals
The major metabolic organ is the _________________
liver
A hormone is a/an ________________
messenger that tells one to do something.
The Canadian Food Guide for Healthy Eating is shaped like __________.
a rainbow
The Korean Food Guide is shaped like ________________
a pagoda
T/F. Nutrients are chemicals found in foods.
yes
NHANES is a ___________conducted by the CDC__________ every __________ years.
large national health and nutrition surveyconducted by the CDC every 10 years.
Macro means _______.
big
A joule is ________________.
another way to measure energy. A calorie = 4.2 joules
The fat soluble vitamins are: ____, ___, ___, and ______.
A,D,E,K
"The capacity to do work" was the definition in the text for ________________
energy
T/F. Protein is the body's preferred fuel for quick bursts of physical activity.
F
Protein differs from fats and carbohydrates because it also contains _____________.
nitrogen
Energy is measured in what units? ________ and _____________
Kcals and joules
The accepted scientific abbreviation for carbohydrate is: _________
CHO
What is mean by a "Public health Intervention"?
Introducing a practice that automatically treats everyone instead of expecting each person to remember to do it. Example adding folic acid to wheat.
"Essential" nutrients are those which _________________
have to be eaten (or taken in in some way)
A pigment is _________________
a coloring agent
Low pH means ___________________
very acidic
What does RD stand for and what does it indicate? _________________
Registered Dietitian Minimum of 4 year degree in nutrition plus additional training (e.g. an internship) and passed a national nutrition exam.
mineral found by the last two NHANES surveys found that the majority of Americans get less than
2/3 of the recommended amount of ______________. This mineral is a cofactor in over _________
pathways. What do people look like who have an inadequate intake of it?
magnesium 300 we have discontinued eating nuts, dried beans, and the germ in grains.
Why is iron deficiency the most well-known nutrient deficiency in the US?
It is the one we can most easily measure.
What are villi? The brush border? What do they do?
Little finger-like parts of the intestine, covered by the brush border. They are resoponsible for much digestion and absorption activiuty.
Where are most nutrients absorbed?
Small intestine
Where is most water absorbed?
Large intestine
What does the pancreas produce and excrete into the intestinal lumen?
Digestive enzymes.
What does molecular size have to do with absorption of nutrients?
If molecules are too big they are not absorbed and they are excreted.
What is rickets? What causes it and why? Who can get it? What was the "rickets belt"?
Bone damage in babies from vitamin D deficiency. Anything that contributes to not having enough sunlight on the skin or an oral intake of vitamin D.
Now we know that rickets was just the most visible problem associated with this vitamin deficiency; it
is also a contributor to _______, ____________, ____________, _____________, ____________ etc.
cancer, MS, diabetes, muscle pain, muscle weakness, arthritis, osteoporosis and more.
The RDA is the level of a nutrient that is thought to meet the needs of ________________.
98% of the healthy population