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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Is phosphorus, or calcium more rapidly absorbed?
Phosphorus
Where does absorption of phosphorus occur?
in the duodenum and jejunum
What form of phosphorus are people getting when they consume large amounts of animal product?
Phosphates
What factors influence the bioavailability of phosphorus?
the form and the pH
Are most phosphates absorbed in their organic or inorganic form?
inorganic
Where is the major store of phosphorus in the body?
bone
What controls phosphorus concentration?
parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D anc calcitronin
T/F PTH influences phosphorus in similar ways to how it affects calcium
true
What is the effect of calcitonin on phosphorus?
promotes absorption of calcium and phosphorus into the bone (opposite effect of PTH)
what factors inhibit phosphorus absorption?
calcium
magnesium
iron
aluminium
what are some factors enhancing phosphorus absorption?
1,25-dihydroxylvitamin D
acidity
Where is phosphorus distributed and stored in the body?
80-85% found in the bones and teeth, 15-20% found in the soft tissue including muscle, brain, and blood as phosphate ions
How is phosphorus excreted?
the kidneys are the primary route of excretion
What are the primary functions of phosphorus?
hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate salt)
phospholipids
nucleic acid
ATP
acid-bas buffer
What is the clinical deficiency of phosphorus?
Hypophosphataemia
What are common causes of hypophosphataemia?
hospitalisation
malabsorption
alcoholism
respiratory alkalosis
What are some possible effects of hypophosphataemia?
rhabdomyolysis
haemolysis
respiratory failure
impaired myocardial performance
What are some nutritional sources of phosphorus
chicken, fish, eggs, milk products (60%)
legumes and grains (20%)
which form of copper is most often found in biological systems?
Cu2
What are the two forms of copper that are readily absorbed?
Copper Sulphate
Copper Nitrate
What are some factors that inhibit the absorption of copper?
fibre
phytates
amino acids
vit C
Zinc
Iron
What are some factors that enhance the absorption of copper?
low dietary intake
How is copper transported in the body?
after intestinal absorption, it is transported to hepatocytes where it is incorporates into copper-containing enzymes
Where is copper stored in the body?
In a protein called metallothionein, in the liver
Where is copper found in the body?
bones, kidneys, heart, muscles, liver, brain, and blood
How is copper excreted?
via the bile
What are the main functions of copper?
critical functional component of essential enzymes known as cuproenzymes, thus:
energy production
connective tissue formation
iron metabolism
CNS functions
Melanin formation
What is SOD?
Superoxide dismutase (breaks down superoxide free radical)
What is the function of Dopamine hydroxylase
converts dopamine to noradrenaline
What is the function of Tyrosine?
for melanin formation
What are the richest food sources of copper?
organ meats
shellfish
nuts
seeds
List the copper binding proteins
Metallothionein
Albumin
Blood clotting factor IV