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18 Cards in this Set

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1. List and cover in detail the functions of proteins (amino acids)
- Building- cells, muscles, connective tissue, bones, ect
-As enzymes- catalyst or facilitate reactions
-as hormones- messenger molecules (insulin)
-Energy source- 4 kcal/g
-Glucose- formation-critical function!
- Fluid balance- proteins attract water (ex. Blood proteins albumins and globulins)
*Edema- a collection of water in the interstitial spaces (ex. Swelling with underfed children in countries)
-Acid/base balance- protein acts as a buffer
- Negative acid solution has many (free) positive ions
- PH range is 1-14
-Immune functions: antibodies
-Transport proteins:
-Carry molecules and nutrients in fluids
-Part of cell membrane and transport substances into and out of the cell.
2. Define complete protein? It’s significance? Sources? Incomplete protein? Sources
-Complete protein- contain all essential amino acids
-Proteins that are low in an essential amino acid cannot, by themselves, support protein synthesis.
-Derived from animals (meat, fish, poultry, cheese, eggs, and milk and gelatin but it lacks tryptophan)
-Incomplete protein- missing amino acids
-Sources: soy, nuts and seed, legumes, eggs, milk products, meats, fish (whole grains and some vegetables have some)
3. Define complementary protein. Examples and significance?
- Complementary proteins- 2 incomplete proteins complete each other
- Example: a vegetarian combining plant-protein foods that have different but complementary amino acid patterns. (Mutual supplementation)
- When the essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other
4. What is BV and what levels are foods at? Significance of the difference of the scores of the foods gone over in class?
-BV (biological value)- measures efficiency of the conversion of food protein to body tissue.

Examples-BV
- egg white- 100 (highest)
- milk- 93
- beef and fish- 75
- soy protein- 74
- Corn- 70
- Peanuts- 40

- The more nitrogen remained, the higher the protein quality. Egg is at 100 meaning 100% is absorbed
5. What % of calories in the American diet is it recommended we get from protein- newest recommendation for the NAS-institute of Medicine –Sept. 2002?
- 10 % to 35 % of kcals from protein
- 2 servings in recommended by various groups
- Many groups recommend not consuming or using red meats sparingly-ncl; “New pyramid”
6. What is the formula for determining the RDA for protein based on desirable body weight?
- Example: 154 lb man (70 kg)- 56/day protein
- (70 kg X. 8/kg)- 56 g/day
154 X 2.2= 170 kg
- 120 lb women (55kg) –44g/day protein
- Convert pounds to kilograms, if necessary (pounds divided by 2.2 equals kilograms)
- Multiply kilograms by .8 to get your RDA in grams per day. (males 15-18 years old, multiply by .9)
· Activities- very strenuous physical activity need: 1-2g/kg body weight
· Example 170 lb (77kg) 77g-154 per day
7. What is the average protein consumption in the U.S by women? Men?
- Aver. Intake in men in the U.S is 100/day
- Ave intake in women is 65g/day
8. Why is it desirable to consume at least some of our protein from plant (legume) sources?
- Legumes, soy, grains, nuts and seeds, some vegetables
- Are inexpensive and widely available
- Good sources of carbohydrates., fiber and protein
- Soy protein may lower the risk of some cancers and heart disease (populations st)
- Tofu, soy milk, some veggie “burgers”
o Soy nuts, meal alternatives, ECT
Serving sizes
- 2-3 oz. Fish, poultry meat
- 2-3 eggs or 4-6 egg whites
- 4 T peanut butter or .5 cup peanuts
- 1.5 cups legumes or cooked beans
- .25 cup nuts= .25 cup serving
- 1 cup cottage cheese
- 2 ounces cheese
9.How do low car/high protein diets work? Effects? Advantages? Potential risks and disadvantages? Long-term success?
- Weight loss
- Water loss—dehydration, glycogen breakdown, and ketosis (ketenes made from fat)
- Reduce calories- eliminate food group and less variety, decrease in appetite
- Faster weight loss initially… not as hungry…but do not show to maintain weight.
- Side effect: tired nauseous, dizzy, weak, difficult to work out
- Insulin to transfer glucose amino acids and fats into cells from blood.
- Less than 25 % of the population over produces insulin when fed lots of carbohydrates.
- Over productions caused by obesity and lack of exercise and aging
- Eating protein with carbohydrates decreases rise in blood sugar in most people; protein adds to satiety.

SAFTEY
-ketosis- damage bones, kidneys stone formation
-causes fatigue, nausea, bad breathe, fainting
-long term effects unknown- but may increase risk of cancers, CVD, and other chronic diseases.

DISADVANTAGES
- very little fiber
- fewer vitamins and minerals and supplements should be taken
- few photochemical –(only made by plants)
- diets low in fruits/ veggies/ whole grains show increases risk of cancers, CVD, diabetes, eye dis., stroke
- world wide the healthiest people eat little animal protein and fat, but instead vegetables, fruit, whole grains, sometimes fish, legumes, mostly plants.
1. What elements make up carbohydrates?
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
2. What is the chemical formula for Monosaccharides?
C6H12O6
3. What are the 3 major groups of carbohydrates?
Simple: Monosaccharides and disaccharide
Complex: polysaccharides
4. List the Monosaccharides and sources for each.
Glucose- blood sugar, honey, fruit, vegetable, breakdown production of starch.
Fructose- fruit, honey, high fructose corn syrup
Galactose- breakdown product of lactose (yogurt milk)
Same formula, different structures
Simple sugars
5. List the disaccharide specifically composed of (or broken down to)?
-Combination of 2 Monosaccharides
-formed by condensation reactions: glycoside bond
1. Maltose-
-. Breakdown production of starch
2. Sucrose-
- table sugar, cane and beets, fruits, vegetables, honey, maple syrup
3. Lactose-
- in milk and some milk products
- simple sugars.
6. What is each disaccharide specifically composed of (or broken down to)?
Maltose-2 glucose condensed
Sucrose- 1 glucose and 1 fructose
Lactose-1 glucose and 1 galactose
7. Name the polysaccharides. What are the sources of each?
1. Starch- grain (wheat, rice, ect.) Potatoes, legumes, vegetables.
2. Glycogen- NOT from food. It is stored glucose in the human body (liver and muscles) It is the back up supply of glucose for blood
-liver glycogen source of blood sugar
3. Fiber-fibers provide structure in stems, trunks, roots, leaves and skins of plants.
8. What are the polysaccharides composed of?
Most composed of long chains of glucose
1. Starch- composed of 100’s and 100’s of glucose units
2. Highly branched chains of glucose- some fibers are polysaccharides
9. Describe and discuss the significance of the structure glycogen.
- The human body stores much of its glucose as glycogen-many glucose molecules linked together in highly branched chains.
- This arrangement permits rapid hydrolysis. When the hormonal message “release energy” arrives at the storage sites in a liver or muscle, enzymes respond by attacking all the many branches of each glycogen simultaneously, making a surge of glucose available.