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22 Cards in this Set

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Nursing Care for Misc Nutrition Sx
-Anorexia:
*check preferences
*Small frequent feedings
*Evaluate med. interactions
*Limit fried foods
-Nausea & Vomiting:
*Withhold food & liquids
*Reintroduce liquids slowly
*Start w/sips of cl liquids & ice chips
-Constipation:
*Increase fluid intake
*Increase fruits & fiber
-Diarrhea:
*Fluids
*Bland foods
*Avoid fiber, spices, & fat
*Avoid alcohol, caffeine, & cold fluids
-Flatulence:
*Avoid gas forming foods
*Limit carbonated beverages
*No straws
*No gum
Age Related Nutrient Variables of Infancy (0-1yr)
-Rapid Growth:
*Weight doubles by 6 months
*Weight triples by 1 year
Geriatric Client Needs
-Require fewer calories r/t decrease
metabolic rate
-Still require same nutrients as
younger people
-Need increase fiber r/t dec perstalsis
-Impaired sense of taste and smell
-Frequent deficiencies in C, D, Calcium, and iron
Domains of learning
-Cognitive: intellectual skills
-Affective: feelings and emotions
-Pyschomotor: motor skills
TPR
Time
Patience
Repetition
Normal Lab Values
-Hematoglobin: m(13.5-17.5 g/dl)
f(11.5-15.5 g/dl)
-Hematocrit: m(44-52%) f(39-47%)
-Albumin: (3.5-5.5 g/dl)
-Electrolytes:
*Sodium: 136-145
*Potassium: 3.5-5.2
*Chloride: 96-106
-Glucose: 70-110 mg/dl
-Total Cholesterol: <200 mg/dl
*HDL: 35-85 mg/dl
*LDL: <130 mg/dl
-BUN: 8-28 mg/dl
-Calcium: 8.5-10.5 mg.dl
-Creatine: 0.6-1.2 mg/dl
-Uric Acid: 2.5-8 mg/dl
-Magnesium: 1.8-3.0 mg/dl
-Phosphorus: 2.3-4.7 mg/dl
Nutrition Pyramid
Fat & Oils: sparingly
Dairy: 2-3 servings
Protein: 2-3 servings
Vegetables: 3-5 servings
Fruits: 2-4 servings
Breads, Grains, Cereals: 6-11 servings
Carbohydrates
-4ckal/g
-Major source of energy
-Required for brain function
-Stored as glycogen or converted to fat
-Types: mono, poly, disaccharides
Proteins (CHON)
-4ckal/g
-Source of amino acids for growth,
maintenance & repair of muscle, bone,
skin and other tissue
-Help maintain homeostasis
-Need for formation of enzymes
Sources of Protein
-Animal Sources:
*Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy
-Plant Sources:
*Legumes, grains, nuts, vegetables
Amino Acids
-Nonessential: body able to make on own
-Essential: must be supplied in diet
Types of Protein
-Complete proteins: contains all essential amino acids in adequate amounts for human use (animal)
-Incomplete: contains some but not all essential amino acids (plants)
Fats Overview
-9ckal/g
-Source of energy
-Insulates & protects vital organs
-Present in cell membrane & NS
-Lubricates skin, makes hair shiny
Lipids
-Contain triglycerides, phospholipids,
& sterols
Triglycerides
-Fats and oils
-Fats are solid at room temp
-Oils are liquid at room temp
Phospholipids
-Soluble in fat & H2O
-Used as an emulsifier (margarine, candy bars)
Sterols
-Perform vital metabolic functions
-Cholesterol most familiar
-Others are Vitamin D & sex hormones
-Too much leads to atherosclerosis
Fatty Acids
-Saturation:
*Saturated: contains all the hydrogen it is capable of holding (most are animal origin), more solid in nature
*Unsaturated: not completely filled with hydrogen, more liquid in nature (most are plant origin)
-Essential:
*Absence will create a deficiency disease
*Body cannot manufacture (need in diet)
-Linoleic acid: Omega 6
*source: vegetables, seeds, & grains
-Linolenic: Omega 3
*source: meat & fish
Roles of Fatty Acids
-Involved in brain development
-Strengthens cell membranes
-Rods & Cones in the eye
-Regulates body functions
-Possible role in prevention of heart disease, arthritis, & cancer
US Dietary Guidlines
-Carbohydrates: 55-60%
*major should be complex
-Fats: not >30%
*Saturated: <10%
*Unsaturated: 10-20%
-Proteins: 9-13%
-Caloric need determined by body size and energy output
Vitamins & Minerals
-Vital organ dietary substances
-Needed in very small amounts
-Perform specific metabolic function
-Most can't be manufactured by the body
-Do not yield energy but assist in releasing it form CHO, CHON, & fat
Rule of 5 & 6
Ideal body weight calculated:
*Female: 100 + 5 for each in > 5"
*Male: 106 + 6 for each in > 5"