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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what causes weight gain?
consuming excess calories
what is the only proven negative of carbohydrates?
cause tooth decay (dental carries)
what is the only animal source of carbs?
dairy
what are the simple sugars?
monosaccharides, disaccharides
what are the monosaccharides?
glucose, fructose, galactose
which monosaccharide is the simplest form found in all carbs?
glucose
what are all carbs broken down into for digestion?
glucose
what is fructose?
sweet fruit sugar in all fruits and honey
not nutritious outside of fruit
what is galactose
monosaccharide in breast milk, only found in combinations
what are disaccharides?
combination of monosaccharides
Maltose, sucrose (table) sugar, lactose (milk sugar)
what is maltose?
sugar in alcohol
glucose + glucose
what is sucrose?
table sugar
glucose + fructose
1 teaspoon = 16 calories
what is lactose?
milk sugar
glucose + galactose
only in dairy
what is lactose intolerance?
illness that occurs when dairy products are consumed because of missing enzymes
what are polysaccharides?
many glucose
starch, fiber
what are starches?
complex carbs, always plant products (vegetables, nuts, seeds, grain products)
what is fiber?
resistant to human digestive enzymes
what is soluble fiber?
dissolve in water, gets absorbed in large intestine
what is insoluble fiber?
wont be absorbed
what is the recommended intake of fiber?
11.5 grams/ 1000 calories
what is the recommended intake of carbs?
carbohydrates should be 60% of your daily caloric intake
what do carbs do?
energy source
protein sparer
needed to breakdown fats
do fats mix with water?
no
what is the name of the fat layer under the skin?
subcutaneous fat
what are all the fats in the body and floating in the blood called?
triglycerides
what are monounsaturated fats?
olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil
what are polyunsaturated fats?
corn, cottonseed, soybean, sunflower, safflower oil, ( contain omega-3)
what are omega 3
produces DHA and EPA (concentrated forms) - prevents heart disease
what contains omega-3
walnuts, flaxseed, fatty fish (tuna, salmon, herring, sardine)
what are saturated fats?
bad fats found in animal products, cashews, macadamea nuts, coconut oil, coconut milk and avocado
what plant products contain saturated fats?
coconut oil, coconut milk, avocado, macadamia nuts, cashews
why are saturated fats bad?
they are saturated with hydrogen which makes the cell membrane (composed of fat) stiffer and unhealthy
-can cause heart disease and high blood pressure
are saturated fats essential to the diet?
no
what is hydrogenation/ hydrogenated?
hydrogen has been added
makes healthy oil unhealthy
what are trans fats?
hydrogenated oils, man made
has properties of sat. fats,
increases product shelf life
how does saturated fat affect the liver?
it causes it to produce cholesterol
what is cholesterol?
fat like substance that is not a nutrient
-has 0 calores
where is cholesterol found?
only in animal products
egg yolk, shrimp, lobster, shell fish, all animal products
what are the functions of dietary fat and body fat?
energy source
insulation- subcutaneous layer
cushion - internal organs
absorbs- fat soluble vitamins
what are lipoproteins?
cholesterol and triglycerides in bloodstream
what are HDL's?
High density lipoproteins ( good cholesterol)
-helps remove cholesterol from blood
what are LBL's?
low density lipoproteins
clogs arteries
lowered by not eating sat./trans. fats
what level of HDL is healthy?
greater than 40 mg/dl
what level of LDL is healthy?
less than 100mg/dl
what is the recommended intake for fats?
20-30% of total daily calories
what parts of the body are protein made?
hormones, enzymes, immune system antibodies, skeleton matrix, nails, hair, organs, and muscles
what does protein do?
build and maintain muscles and organs
do humans have a storage form of protein?
no, it is eaten and used
what is the only plant product with all essential amino acids?
soy protein
what type of protein is in all animal products?
all animal products contain high quality protein
what are isoflavones?
component of soybeans that is similar to animal protein
what flavor does soybean have?
it takes the flavor of what it is cooked with
what is soybean a good source of?
it is high in fats ( essential fatty acids omega 3/6)
-good source of calcium and fiber
how many amino acids are there?
20
how many amino acids are essential?
9
how many amino acids are non-essential?
11
what is the difference between non-essential and essential amino acids?
essential amino acids must be eaten because the body doesnt produce them
what is insulin?
composed of 48 amino acids, diabetics must inject it into their blood
what is hemoglobin?
part of red blood cell- carries oxygen
made of iron and protein
what is the normal sequence of hemoglobin?
histadine-leucine-threonine-proline-glutamic acid- glutamic acid
what is the sequence of sickle cell hemoglobin?
the same as a regular cell except the second to last glutamic acid is a valine
what is the negatives of sickle cell?
they die faster than they are created
last less than 6 months and clog arteries causing pain
what are the functions of body proteins?
form antibodies, repair and maintain cell, forms hormones and enzymes, prevent muscles from being broken down into glucose
is protein used for energy?
no
what is the recommended daily allowance for protein?
.8 grams/kg body weight/ day
what usually cause food allergies?
enzymes in food
what is the difference between intolerance and allergy
intolerance is a missing enzyme
allergy is an immune reaction,
how are severe allergic reactions handled?
with epinephrine
what are typical allergens?
nuts(tree nuts), peanuts (legumes), wheat, milk, soy, seafood, shell fish
what is celiac disease?
allergic reaction to wheat gluten that affects the intestinal area
what are some sources of wheat?
rye, wheat, bread, barley
is corn gluten free?
yes