Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

128 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are proteins composed of?
what are proteins made up of?
chains of amino acids
what are amino acids called?
the "building blocks" of proteins
what are the 2 types of amino acids?
non-essential and essential
how many essential fatty acids can't the body make?
what type of bonds connect amino acids to form proteins?
peptide bonds
what reaction connects amino acids?
condensation reaction
when you expose amino acids to heat,acid, etc. what happens to them?
they loose shape and ability to funtion
when the amino acids loose their sape and ability to function, what is this called?
example of denatured protein:
raw eggs can be used as emulsifyers, but once you expose them to heat and cook them they no longer can be used as emulsifyers
what are some foods that contain proteins?
egg whites
small amount in grains and vegetables
gluten in bread
what is gluten?
the protein found in bread
what does gluten do?
adds texture ( it has the texture of meat)
what is Celiac Sprue?
being allergic to gluten
what does it do to bod when you have celiac sprue?
damages villi which stops the nutrients from being absorbed
how many people have Celiac Sprue?
1 out of 133 people
what does the mouth do in protein digestion?
crushes and moistens
what does hydrochloric acid do to proteins in the stomach?
denatures the strands
what is pepsin?
a gastric enzyme
what does pepsin do?
cleaves large polypeptides into small polypeptides and amino acids
what is a limiting amino acid?
an essential amino acid we don't have
what does complete protein provide?
all the essential amino acids
in teh small intestine, what hydrolizes peptides?
pancreatic and intestinal proteases
what are the peptides hydrolized into?
tripeptides, dipeptides, and amino acids
what splits most dipeptides and tripeptides into single amino acids?
what are amino acids's main 2 function?
-burn the calories
where do carriers transport the amino acids to?
intestinal cells
what are used for energy or to synthesize compounds
amino acids
where are proteins made?
at the ribosome
what is DNA?
genetic information from conception
what does DNA provide?
instruction for protein synthesis
what does a stretch of DNA serve teh purpose of?
serves as a template or "picture" for making m RNA
what does m RNA carry?
a code for the sequence of amino acids
what does m RNA attatch itself to?
a ribosome to line up the amino acids in order to make protein
what collects amino acids and brings them back to the m RNA?
t RNA (transfer)
where do the amino acids collect around in order to be put into specified sequence?
the ribosome
what are the roles of proteins?
body fluid balance
acid base regulators
this protein is used for the structureof teeth,bones,hair,skin,nails
what are enzymes made out of?
what do enzymes do?
facilitate all chem. rxns in the body
what are some hormones made of?
what are hormones?
messengers acting in response to body's enviroment
what is it called when fluids are maintained in the right places?
body fluid balance
where is intravascular fluid found?
in the vessels
where is the extracellular fluid found?
outside of the cells
what is the fluid called that is in between the cells?
interstitial fluid
what is teh fluid called that is found inside the cell?
intercellular fluid
what does protein attract?
what does protein cause a decrease in?
when protein causes a decrease in plasma what type of fluid is increased?
the interstitial fluid
when the fluid goes into the interstitial fluid, what is this called?
when you are deficeint in proteins, what gets less fluids?
the cells
the less protein in the plasma, the greater teh risk for?
how do proteins act as acid-base regulators?
proteins accept H= ions and release them, this is what maintains acid-base balance
what transportaion protein caries fat?
what transportaion protein carries oxygen?
what are hemoglobin and lipoproteins?
transportaion proteins
what are antibodies?
proteins that provide immunity and defence
how much energy can a protein supply us with?
4 cal per gram of protein
what is protein usually spared for?
when is teh only time protein will be used for eneergy?
when the body doesn't take in enough carbs and fats
what is the idea of complementary protein/mutual supplements?
that by eating two foods such as legumes and grains together, that your body will receive all the 9 essential proteins
the main idea behind this is that
if you eat a variety of protein throughout the day, you will get the 9 essentail amino acids needed
what is the idea behind protein quality of foods?
that a food such as the egg contians all 9 essential amino acids and they are very digestable by the body
so what is the main thing you are looking for when considering protein quality of a food?
the digestability of the food and how many essential amino acids it contains
what is the egg considered in regard to that it is worth a 100?
a reference food, you compair it to other foods fr protein quality such as the lima bean which might had a score of a 42 compaired to the egg
what is it when we give humans protein and see how much is absorbed compared to what is lost to urine and sweat?
biological values
what is HBV?
a "high biological value" food
what are 2 HBV foods?
meat and eggs
what is an example of a LBV food?
what people do you want to pay special attention to eating HBV foods?
those who have enstaged kidney disease who have to limit protein in general, we want them eating the high value ones that they do eat
having to do with liver disease, what is ensepahalopathy?
one being confused
what si the general way to figure out how much protein one should be consuming?
by eating .8 grams per kg of body weight one has
how much protein does the average person need?
44-73 g 150 pd person needs 55g
how may grans of protein does one ounce of meat have
7 g
what is one serving size of meat?
3 ounces which would be 21 g of protein
what is a "turn over"
protein metabolism- proteins are continuously broken down and synthesized
what is protein synthesized into?
cells such as skin,hair and nails
what is nitrogen balance?
protein intake from food balances with that lost in urine, feces, and sweat
what is positive nitrogen balance?
when you have more coming in than needed
who is in the position for this positive nitrogen balance?
preganant women, someone in positon of gowth or healing process
what is negative nitrogen balance?
a sign that the body is using protein for energy
amino acids can be used for energy
amino acids can be used for energy
when we are eneergy deprived, the body breaks down what?
tissue proteins for energy
if there are too many amino acids, what can they be stored as?
what happens when there is excess protein taken in?
deamination, N2 is excreted, remaining carbons are converted to stored fat
how many essential amino acids must our diet contain?
what is a missing essential amino acid called?
a limiting amino acid
what does a complete protein contain
all the essential amino acids
what are some complete sources of protein?
eggs meat soy
whatare some incomplete potein sources?
corn,lima beans, nuts
what is deamination?
when nitrogen gets excreted from teh amino acids
what is PEM?
protein-energy malnutrition
wh does PEM afect most?
children in poverty, elderly, person with eating disorder, cancer patient,person with HIV virus
what is acute PEM?
recent, severe, the person is thin for their height
what is chronic PEM?
long term, the person is short for their age
children with marasmus may late develop
what is infection more common with?
antibodies degrade to
provide amino acids
repeltion should be ______ for better tolerance
protein myth
protein will increase muscle mass, nail strength and hair texture
effects of insufficient protein intake
protein degredation will surpass protein synthesis
muscle size and strength will be lost
excess protein intake leads to
excess amino acids will be converted to carbohydrate and fat once the nitrogen is removed
what is neede for increased size and strength?
nitrogen balance
for those engaging in resistance training what is the amt of protein per gram they should intake daily?
1.7-1.8g/kg of weight
((1.2-1.4 per pound))
what is the amt where it is no longer a benefit?
2.0 g/kg of weight
protein absorption requires more water than fat or carb
protein absorption requires more water than fat or carb
excretion of excess protein may increase what?
urinary calcium loss
what are many high protein foods also very high in?
sat fats and cholesterol
increased consumption of individual amino acids may result in
metabolic embalances and toxicities
excess protein also increases the work of the
Why does protein absorption require more water
because the body needs to excret the nitrogen through the urine
what do vegans avoid?
any animal products
what do lacto veg. allow themselves to eat?
what do pesco veg. allow themselves to eat?
what are meat analogues?
fake meats
what do lacto-ovo allow themselves to eat?
dairy and eggs
what are the nutritional concerns of vegetarians?
heme iron
omega 3 fats
where is heme iron found?
meats (very absorbable)
where is non/heme iron found?
in cereals and veggies, not easy to digest
where can b12 be found?
only present in animal products ( vegans need to take b12 supp)
what are the types of htings vegans need to take in for calcium
fortified orange juice
small bones in fish
where can you find zinc?
meats and fortified foods
where can you get your omega 3 fats?
with vegetarianism, what are the usual benefits?
-maintian healthier body weight
-lower incidence of high blood pressure and heart disease
-lower risks of colon cancer
what are some of the vegetarian guielines?
-choose a variety of foods from all food groups ( avoid processed foods)
-include whole grais, veggies, fruits, legumes, nuts seeds, and if desired dairy and eggs
-minimize intake of highly sweetened, fatty, and heavily refined foods
-if animal products such as dairy and eggs are used try to choose lower fat choices
a bodybuilder needs
positive nitrogen balance