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57 Cards in this Set

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What is Life Science?
A process of gathering knowledge.
What are the steps of the scientific method?
:ask a question
:do research
:create a hypothesis
:Do the experiment
:anayze the data
:conclusion
:Share
What are 3 things that are important in making observations?
:colors
:measuring sizes
:a drawing
What are 3 things that are important in making scientific drawings?
:Use as much detail as possible
:Label identifying structures
:Create a proper title
Distinguish between independant, dependant and controlled variables.
Independant: The variable that the scientist controls
Dependant: changes because of the independant
Constant: The things that are the same
What is a control?
The experiment without the independant variable added, or kept at a "normal" level, and the data then used for comparison is known as the control.
Describe 3 tools life scientists use to observe organisms.
computers
micrpscopes
magnifine glasses
Describe the 6 charecteristics of living things.
DR. GERSC
DNA
Reproduce
Growth and develop
Energy
Response to Stimulus
Cells
what is metabolism?
some of the chemical processes in the organisms
Explain why organisms need food, water and living space.
why they need food: energy
water: water provides the necasarry environment for the chemical reactions in the metabolism.
air: air has the necassarry ingrediants to cause the chemical reactions in the cell body
Describe the chemical building blocks of cells.
proteins build and prepare body structures and regulate body processes. carbohydrates are a quick energy source. Lipids store energy longterm or they help form membranes. ATP an energy carrying molecule. Nucleic Acids are the blue prints of life.
distinguish between producers, consumers and decomposers.
Producers: Make the food
Consumers: Eat the food
Decomposers: decompose the food.
distinguish between an atom, a molecule and a compound.
Atom: the smalest unit of matter
Molecule: is 2 of the same atoms combine
Compound: 2 different atoms combined
Why did it take so long to dscover cells?
It took along time because they did not have good technology
what is a cell?
a cell is the smallest unit that can preform all of life processes
who was first to use the word "cell"?
Robert Hooke
who was first to see protist and bacteria?
Leewonhoek
who were the three people to develop the cell theory?
:Shwoen
:Shleidon
:Virchow
What is the cell theory?
:All cells come from other living cells.
:Cells are the basic unit of all basic things
:All organisms are made of one or more cells
Explain why cells have to be small.
If they get to big then their surface area will be too small and it will explode
What is an organelle?
one of the small bodies in a cells cytoplasm that have a specialized job
Name 3 things that ALL cells have.
:DNA
:Ribosomes
:Cytoplasm
List 3 advantages to being multicellular.
:larger
:specialization
:live longer
Describe the 5 levels of organization for living things.
:cells
:tissues
:organs
:organ systems
:organisms
Explain the process of diffusion.
The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to low concentration
When is diffusion effective?
over short periods of time
Describe what osmosis is and when it occurs.
a special kind of diffusion that requires the movement of water molecuules across a membrane
What is facilitated transport and give an example.
A type of facilitated transport is: passive transport. A type of passive transport: Glucose.
compare passive and active transport.
Passive: doesn't require energy
Active: does require energy
Explain how really large particles get into and out of a cells.
really large particles get into and out of cells by endocytosis and exocytosis
describe photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Photosynthesis: the process in which plants make food
Cellular respiration: a chemical process that occurs in cells
compare cellular respiration with fermentation.
chemical repiration realeases more energy from food than fermentation will.
What are the formulas for photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
Photosynthesis:
6CO2+6H2O+LIGHT+C6H1206+6O2
Cellular Respiration:
C6H12O6+6O2+6CO2+6H20+ATP
How are Photosynthesis and respiration related?
CR makes CO2 and Photosynthsis uses CO2 to make OXYGEN.
What is a chromosome?
tightly compacted DNA with proteins ready for division.
what are homologous chromosomes?
chromosomes that make pairs of similer genes.
Distinguish between cell division in bacteria, plants and animals.
bacteria:-binary fission
-nucleus is not involved
plants:-can't pinch in 2
-2 newly formed cells
animals:-cells are squishier
-pinches in 2 to create 2 new cells
Explain how genes and alleles are related to genotype and phenotype.
genes: the instructions for a characteristic
alleles: various forms of a characteristic
genotype: represents exactly what the paired alleles are considered to be
phenotype: what a organism looks like
Describe three exceptions to Mendel's observations and know examples of each.
:Incomplete Dominance
:There are at least 3 genes that control skin
: there are at least 2 genes that control eyes.
Describe how to determine the probability of a genotype or phenotype in offspring using a punnet square.
A1A1 I A1A2
_____I_____
A1A2 I A2A2
I
What is Cytokinesis?
watery goo that fills all cells that divided and split.
Explain the difference between mitosis and meiosis.
mitosis: division results in 2 cells
meiosis: division results in 4 cells
Describe how chromosomes determine sex.
The 23rd pair
.
Explain why sex-linked disorders occur in one sex more often than in another.
Boys only have 1 X chromosomes so if anything is wrong they get the disorder.
What is a pedigree?
circles(females)/squares(males)
What is selective breeding?
occurs when specific characteristics are sought after and chosen to increase their frequency in the population.
What is adaptation?
adaptation is a characteristic that improves an individual's ability to survive and reproduce.
what is a species?
a species is a group of organisms that are closely related, can live together and mate.
What is evolution?
the process in which characteristics within a population change over time.
Of what does the fossil record provide evidence?
The fossil record proves that the order in which species have existed organisms have evolved.
What are Homologous structures?
Homologous structures are characteristics which are shared by related species.
How does examination of DNA support the hypotheses of a similar ancestry?
comparing certain features of organisms, like their overall structure of DNA
What is natural selection?
its when the ecosystem changes and the survival needs change with it.
Relate genetics to evolution.
genetics: the patterns the parent passes to offspring
evolution: the change in the ecosystem over time
Give one example of natural selection in action.
Give one example of natural selection in action.
Outline the 3 parts of the process of speciation.
Outline the 3 parts of the process of speciation.