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88 Cards in this Set

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What stage of sleep is referred to as transition sleep? It is a state between drowsiness and sleep and is a very light sleep?
Stage 1
What stage of sleep is considered light sleep, it lasts about 10-15 minutes but constitutes about 40-45% of total sleep, and you are easily awakened?
Stage 2
These two are considered slow wave sleep, deep sleep, and you are difficult to arouse?
Stage 3 and 4
What stage of sleep is stage 5 or dream stage?
REM sleep
This sleep is also referred to as paradoxial sleep and occurs every 90 minutes and last for 5-30 minutes?
REM sleep
During this stage of sleep: vital signs fluctuate, oxygen consumptioin increases, thermoregulations lost, vaginal secretions increase, erections occur, and dreams are very vivid?
REM sleep
How long is one sleep cycle generally?
90 minutes
What is urge to go to sleep?
What is the state of weariness?
Sleepiness
Fatigue
Two characteristics of normal sleep and rest is restoration and protection where energy is conserved and what else happens?
synthesis of cells (anabolism)
What type of sleeper gets 6 hours or less a night and they are efficient and harworking?
short sleepers
What type of sleeper gets 9 hours or more a night and is very creative?
long sleepers
What is the term used for the time required to fall asleep?
sleep latency period
On average how many times a night do you change positions?
20-40 times a night
How many awakenings per night for normal young adults?
2
What is something that could defer from person to person considering sleep habits?
cultural habits concerning sleep
This is a 24 hour circle, the person is awake when the psychologic and physiolocgic rhythm are most active and is asleep when they are most inactive?
Circadian Rhythms
What age group does this represent: they have quiet and active sleep with irregular respirations, no eye movement, 3 waking stages (quiet awake, active awake, and crying), generally sleep 16-18 hours per day which is divided into seven sleep periods between the day and night, can sometimes sleep as long as 22 hours a day, and other usually 12-14 hours a day?
newborns/infants
At what age does an infant begin to sleep through the night?
4 months
What age group does this represent: naps once or twice a day and total sleep time drops to 10-12 hours at age 2?
Toddler/Preschooler
This age group sleeps about 8-12 hours a day and sleep needs are in relationship to growth spurts and activity patterns?
child
This age group requires more sleep than before puberty, generally 8-10 hrs/night, sleep is controlled by growth and hormone which consists of nocturnal emissions and wet dreams?
Adolescents
Young adults have active lifestyles needing how many hours of sleep/night?
6-8 hours
Middle adults get about 6-8 hours of sleep a night and there sleep satisfaction decreases, why?
Because of increase in nocturnal awakenings
Older adults generally get about 6 hours of sleep a night, what sleep stage decreases causing less restorative sleep?
Stage 4
What is a confusional state that tends to appear at dusk sometimes causing decreased sensory stimulation and can occur with Alzheimer's?
Sundowners syndrome
Hunger or difficulty sleeping after a large meal, ingestion of certain foods decrease sleep latency and increase what stage of sleep?
4
What increases slow-wave sleep?
warmth
Physically fit people have a decreased what?
sleep latency
Illness can affect sleep: acute or chronic results in a loss of what stage of sleep?
3
Pain, dyspnea, hormone changes (hyperthyroidism, skin conditions, and anxiety all affect sleep? Can people sleep while they are in pain?
Yes
Medications and Chemicals such as hypnotics, alcohol, and caffeine can give you a what?
false sleep
What is perceived difficulty in sleeping, can last months to years and consists of three stages?
Insomnia
What type of insomnia is difficulty falling asleep, but can sleep once they get there?
Initial Insomnia
What type of insomnia is difficulty staying asleep, they can fall asleep but have trouble staying there?
Maintenance insomnia
What type of insomnia is early-awakening insomnia?
terminal insomnia
This is a disorder of excessive daytime sleepiness characterized by short, sleep attacks (anytime of the day), last 10-15 minutes and can occur to people age 15-30?
Narcolepsy
What is recurrent periods of absence of breathing for 10 seconds to 2 minutes, occuring at least 5 times per hour, can happen 50-600 times per night, and generally something is obstructing the airway?
Sleep apnea
What type of sleep apnea is when the central nervous system is not firing right?
central apnea
What type of sleep apnea is when there is CNS misfiring and an obstruction blocking the airway?
Mixed apnea
Periodic limb movement consists of repetitive dorsiflexion of the foot and flexion of the knee, about once every 15-20 seconds, people have crawling, itching sensations in the leg at rest, this can interupt your circadian rhythm causing jet lag, what is the other term used to describe this?
Restless legs syndrome
What is normal activities in the day that is abnormal during sleep like sleepwalking, talking, and bed wetting?
parasomnias
What is the term that implies calmness, relaxation without emotional stress, and freedom from anxiety. Therefore, it does not always imply sleep.
Rest
What is an altered state of consciousness in which the individual's eprception of reactioin to the environment are decreased?
SLEEP
These exist in plants, animals and humans, in humans they consist of light, darkness, gravity and electromagnetic stimuli?
Biorhythms
What tool do they use to provide a good picture of what occurs during sleep?
EEG's
What kind of data does this represent: circles under eyes, yawning, nodding, slow responses, irritability, impaired concentration, word-finding difficulties, and vital signs?
objective data
Interventions that you can do to help a person sleep are environment modifications, privacy and security, sleep rituals, managing individual sleep needs, and as a last resort what?
medication
What is a condition in which the person responds to changes within a balanced state?
Stress
What is any event or stimulus that causes an individual to experience stress?
stressor
When a person faces stressors, responses are called _______ strategies, coping responses or coping mechanisms.
coping
_______ has been found to produce damaging psychophysiologic effects, including hearing loss, delayed healing, , impaired immune function, and increased blood pressure, heart rate,and stress.
Noise
The Environmental Protection Agency recommends that hospital noise levels, on average, should not exceed ____ dB (A)during the day and 35 dB (A) during the night.
45
According to a consensus statement of the National Institutes of Health, Noise and Hearing Loss, "Sound levels of less than ____ dB(A) are unlikely to cause permanent hearing loss and sound levels of 85 dB(A) or greater, eight hours per day for many years is likely to cause permanent hearing loss.
75
What is a condition in which the person responds to changes within a balanced state?
Stress
What is any event ot stimulus that causes an individual to experience stress?
Stressor
When a person faces stressors, responses are called _____ coping strategies, coping responses or coping mechanisms.
coping
What source of stress originates within a person such as cancer.
Internal
What source of stress originates outside the person such as nursing school tests?
external
What stressors are predictable throughout one's life such as getting married and physical changes with aging?
developmental
What type of stress is unpredictable events such a divorce?
Situational
_____ is a stimulus, life event, or a set of circumstances that arouse a physiologic or phychologic reaction, you can scale this but it is not reliable.
Stress
What response based model of stress is the local physical response to stress? This stress occurs in one organ or part of the body as with inflammation?
Local Adaptation Syndrome (LAS)
What response based model of stress is the global physical response to stress? Also referred to as stress syndrome
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
What stage of GAS is when the person perceives the stressor either consciously or subconsciously? They may endure physical symptoms (Hr, resp. increase, gi motility, pupil dilation) and may use fight or flight.
Alarm reaction
What stage of GAS is deciding whether or not you want to fight or flight, this is the person attempt to cope with the stress?
Stage of resistence
What stage of GAS is when all energy for adaptation has been exhausted?
Stage of exhaustion
What type of stressor is individual and are like anxiety over test, that may prevent the student from studying effectively?
negative
What type of stressor is individual and are things like motivate the student to study well for the test, getting married, and having children?
POSITIVE
Why does blood sugar increase release of glucocorticoids and glucogensis during stress?
To provide nutrients to the cells to provide energy for rapid response.
What is the term used to describe being constantly on guard and looking for something to blame?
hypervigilance
Long term stress on the brain can lead to the stress hormone(cortisol) to become what?
toxic
Some stress- related _______ are: cardiovascular disease, cancer, arthritis, multiple sclerosis, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, colds, and asthma.
Illnesses
_____ related stressors: intrinsic demands- staff shortage, poor working condition, work overload, and time pressure. Individual role- organization (role conflict), career development (role expectation), relationships ar work, and the organizational climate (chain of command).
Work
What is the constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts or manage specific external or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person?
Coping
Coping resources, characteristics, or actions drawn to manage stress, include- Health, energy, and morale, positive beliefs, problem- solving skills, social skills, social networks, financial resources.
NA
What coping strategy is an individual's attempt to deal with demads or obstacles that create the demands?
Problem- focused coping
What coping strategy is when the individual's effort is concentrated on methods or regulating the emotional response to the problem?
Emotion-focused coping
As an individual begins to deal with a ______, modes of coping may include: information seeking, direct actions, inhibition of action, intrapsychic process, turning to others or escaping or avoiding.
stressor
The nurse should assess the patient for signs and symptoms of the stress response that occur as a result of changes in the Nervous, endocrine and _____ systems.
Immune
What are the three major areas that are important in assessment of stress?
Demands, human responses to stress and coping.
Physiologic effects of stress: increase in heart rate, increase in blood pressure, loss of appetite, hyperventilation, sweating, and dilated pupils
NA
________ experiences include: Headache, musculoskeletal pain, GI upset, skin disorders, insomnia and chronic fatigue.
Symptomatic
_______ human responses include observable actions and cognitions of the patient: inability to concentrate, accident-proneness, impaired speech and anxiety.
Behavioral
What two nursing diagnoses have been identified related to stress?
Ineffective coping, and compromised family coping
This nursing diagnoses may have a R/t like this: The inability to form a valid appraisal of the stressors, inadequate choices of practiced responses, and or inability to use available resources.
Ineffective coping
This nursing diagnoses may have R/t like this the usually supportive primary person providing insufficient, ineffective, or compromised support, comfort, assistance, or encouragement.
Compromised Family coping
The role of the _____ is to facilitate and enhance the process of coping and adaptation.
nurse
Stress management techniques: progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, thought stopping, exercise, humor, assertive behavior, social support, humor, music, journaling, mediation, biofeedback and massage.
No answer