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34 Cards in this Set

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a study that is conducted when little is known about the phenomenon of interest.
exploratory study
a study type that describes the relationship between variables.
descriptive study
how do you tell a descriptive from an exploratory study?
You can tell by considering the amount of information that is available about the variables under investigation.
Causal explanations are searched for in this type of study. This study is much more rigorous than descriptive studies. Usually experimental research.
explanatory
must be enough information about the variables of interest to conduct this study.
explanatory
exploratory and descriptive studies describe phenomena, wheras ________ studies help provide explanations for the relationships among phenomena.
explanatory
the two subcategories of quantitative research designs.
experimental and nonexperimental
Research concerned w/ cause and effect relationships
experimental
all experimental research designs are concerned with manipulation of the _________________ and measurement of the ______________________.
independent variable or cause and dependent variable or effect
variables that the researcher is not able to control or does not wish to control and that may influence the results of the study.
extraneous variables
confounding or intervening variables
extraneous variables
study limitations
extraneous variables
the extranous variables in experimental studies are labeled threats to ____________________ and ________________ ________________.
internal and external validity.
name the True experimental designs
pretest posttest control group;
posttest only control group; and solomon four group
What are the three types of experimental designs?
true experimental, quasiexperimental, and preexperimental
What types of quasiexperimental designs are there?
nonequivalent control group and time series experimental designs.
What types of preexperimental designs are there?
one shot case study and one group pretest posttest.
name the non experimental designs
1. action studies
2. comparative studies
3. correlational studies
4. developmental studies
5. evaluation studies
6. meta analysis studies
7. methodological studies
8. needs assessment studies
9. secondary analysis studies
10. survey studies
concerns the degree to which changes in the dependent variable can be attributed to the to the independent variable.
internal validity
concerns the degree to which study results can be generalized to other people and other settings.
EXTERNAL VALIDITY
threats to internal validity
selection bias, history, maturation, testing, instrumentation change, mortality,
what are some threats to external validity?
hawthorne effect, experimenter effect, reactive effects of the pretest,
R
O
X
R=RANDOM assignment of subjects to groups.
O=OBSERVATION or measurement of dependent variable
X=EXPERIMENTAL treatment or intervention
R O1 X O2
R O1 O2
PRETEST POSTTEST CONTROL GROUP DESIGN
a procedure that ensures that each subject has an equal chance of being assigned or placed in any of the groups in an experimental study.
random assignment
the disadvantage of the the pretest posttest control group design...
external threat of the reactive effects of the pretest
R X O
R O
POSTTEST ONLY CONTROL GROUP DESIGN
EASIER TO CARRY OUT AND SUPERIOR TO PRETEST POSTTEST DESIGN. The generalizability of the results would be more extensive.
posttest only control group design
R O1 X O2
R O1 O2
R X O2
R O2
SOLOMON FOUR GROUP DESIGN
The most prestigious experimental design because it minimizes threats to internal and external validity.
solomon four group design
controls not only to threats of internal validity but also controls for the reactive effects of the pretest.
solomon four group design
requires a very large sample
solomon four design
design in whigh there is either no comparison group or subjects are not randomly assigned to groups.
quasiexperimental design
quasiexperimental designs types
nonequivalent control group design and time series design