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82 Cards in this Set

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What is a characteristic of a hypothesis?
It implies a causative or associative relationship.
When should a hypothesis be developed by the researcher during the research process?
After development of the research question
Which research hypothesis is most testable?
The ability to meditate causes lower anxiety in patients with anxiety disorder than those who do not meditate
What is a characteristic of a directional hypothesis?
It specifies the expected relationship between dependent and independent variables.
What is a characteristic of a deductive hypothesis derived from a theory?
Directional
What is a characteristic of a statistical hypothesis?
It is a null hypothesis.
When will a null hypothesis be rejected?
There is no association among variables.
Which level is characteristic of the strength of the evidence provided by the results of a quasi-experimental study?
Level III
A researcher wants to discover why patients of certain ethnic backgrounds are reluctant to ask for pain medication. Because there are little data in the literature on this topic, the researcher designs a study to explore the relationships between cultural belief systems, the experience of pain, and the effective use of medication to relieve pain. The researcher plans to use the findings of this study to formulate hypotheses for a future study. What is a characteristic of this study?
It is a hypothesis-generating study.
What is the purpose of including a summary of the theoretical and scientific background of a study in a research report?
To inform the reader about how the research question was developed.
The nurse develops the following hypothesis: Elderly women receive less aggressive treatment for breast cancer than do younger women. Which variable would be considered to be the dependent variable?
Degree of treatment received
The nurse develops the following hypothesis: Elderly women receive less aggressive treatment for breast cancer than do younger women. Which variable would be considered to be the independent variable?
Age of the patient
Which of the following hypotheses are indicative of an experimental research design?
The incidence of urinary tract infections will be greater in patients whose Foley catheters are irrigated frequently than in those whose Foley catheters are irrigated less frequently. The incidence of urinary tract infections will not differ between patients with or without Foley catheters.
Which statements are part of the criteria used to judge the soundness of a stated research question?
A relationship between two or more variables
C. The nature of the population being tested
D. The possibility of empirical testing
Which criteria are used to determine testability of a hypothesis?
A. Use of quantifiable words such as greater than or less than
B. A hypothesis stated in such a way that it can be clearly supported or not supported
What are the advantages to using directional hypotheses?
A. The indication of the use of a theory base to derive the hypothesis
B. The provision of a specific theoretical frame of reference
Which one of the following statements about hypotheses is most accurate
Hypotheses help frame a test of the validity of a theory.
A nurse wants to study the effectiveness of meditation on people with anxiety disorder. Which variable would be most relevant to explore in the literature on this topic?
Meditation techniques found to be effective
What is a characteristic of an independent variable?
It is manipulated by the researcher.
A research study found that more pain medication is given postoperatively by older nurses than by younger nurses. What can be said about this finding?
There is a relationship between nurse age and the amount of postoperative pain medication administered.
Which statement is most accurate regarding hypotheses?
Hypotheses are statements about the relationships among variables.
What will convert a research question into a declarative statement that predicts an expected outcome?
Hypothesis
What is the responsibility of a consumer of research?
To apply research in practice

To stay abreast of emerging nursing research
Why is research essential for the delivery of quality nursing care?
Research provides the nurse with knowledge needed to make sound clinical decisions.
Why is nursing research valuable to the consumers of health care?
Research provides evidence that nursing care makes a difference.
Why would a nursing research study that found that specific advanced-practice nursing interventions lowered health care costs by 50% be important to nursing practice?
It demonstrates the cost-effectiveness of the nursing interventions studied.
To be important to nursing practice, how must nursing theory be supported?
Nursing research.
What is the most important contribution that nursing research can make to address concern about rising health care costs?
Documentation of cost-effective, high-quality nursing interventions
How do nurses with master's or doctoral degrees differ from other nurses regarding research?
They are prepared to conduct research as primary investigators
Why is it crucial to have both intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary networks in similar areas of study across disciplines?
They maximize utilization of resources.
What is the purpose of the World Health Organization (WHO)'s designated Collaborating Centers throughout the United States?
To provide research and clinical training in nursing to colleagues around the globe
What is the vision of Healthy People 2010?
A cost-effective, community-based health care delivery system
What is one of the most exciting areas of research emerging for nurses?
Genetics and the human genome
How is evidence-based practice derived?
From research on patient outcomes
Why did early nursing researchers focus primarily on nursing education?
To reform nursing education
What is an advantage of the replication of nursing studies?
Promotes depth in nursing science
What is the importance of generalizability in research?
It increases the usefulness of research findings.
Which research process steps may be noted in an article's abstract?
Identifying the phenomenon
Research question study purpose
Design
What are the stages of understanding of critical reading?
Preliminary
Comprehensive
Analysis
Synthesis
What does a level-of-evidence model use to evaluate the strength of a research study and its findings?
Quality
Quantity
Consistency
What are the critiquing criteria used to judge the worth of a research study?
Measures
Standards

Evaluation guides
Questions
How does a researcher critically read for preliminary understanding?
Through skimming
Which statement best describes qualitative research?
Studies are conducted in natural settings.
The research design is systematic and subjective.
What does a critique of a research study always include?
Determining its strengths and weaknesses
Using critical reading skills
For which of the following research questions would qualitative methods be most appropriate?
What is the meaning of health for migrant farm-worker women?
Which of the following is an accurate statement about critical thinking?
Critical thinking is the art of thinking clearly and defensibly.
What must a nurse researcher do to read a research study critically?
Use a research text to clarify unfamiliar terms
What must a nurse do to use research in practice?
Explore the strength of the evidence available.
What must a person do to think critically?
What must a person do to think critically?
What can a nurse researcher determine by reading the abstract, introduction, major headings, and conclusions of a study?
Study's main theme
How can a nurse researcher achieve a comprehensive understanding of any research report?
Seek assistance for unclear content.
What is an accurate description of a critique?
It requires some knowledge of the subject matter.
What must a nurse researcher do before beginning to analyze a study?
Comprehensively understand the study
What is the most accurate term for making patient-care decisions based on research findings?
Evidence-based practice
When does the strength of the scientific evidence available influence changes in nursing practice
All studies in the content area show similar results.
Data collected from an experimental study where subjects were randomly selected are an example of what level of study?
Level II
Which of the following phrases would be found in a report of a qualitative study?
"Subjects were asked to relate their perceptions of pain ? .
Which of the following phrases would be found in a report of a quantitative study?
"A convenience sample was chosen ? .
Which one of the following titles of studies indicates use of qualitative methodology?
The Experience of Mother-Child Bonding in Inner City Populations
A nurse researcher asks the following question of a group of research subjects: "What was it like to have postpartum depression?" Which type of research question format is this considered to be?
Phenomenologic
A nurse researcher develops the following research question: Is there a relationship between anxiety and body weight in premenopausal and postmenopausal women? Which type of research question format is this considered to be?
Correlational
A nurse researcher develops the following research question: Do menopausal women who received daily doses of an herbal hormone treatment report a lesser number of hot flashes than women who did not receive the treatment? Which type of research question format is this considered to be?
Comparative
What should be included in "scholarly literature"?
Published and unpublished reports of research
Primary and secondary sources
Reviews of the literature are conducted for purposes of research as well as for the consumer of research. How are these reviews similar?
Degree of critical reading required
Importance of conceptual literature
What are characteristics of the literature review required for a quantitative research study?
Doctoral dissertations and masters' theses are excellent sources of information
Computer-accessed materials are acceptable
Which one of the following is an example of a secondary source in a research study?
A chapter in a book critiquing a research study conducted on visual impairment in diabetics
Which of the following is an example of a primary source in a research study?
A journal article about a study that used large, previously unpublished databases generated by the United States census
6.
What is the best source to use when conducting a level I systematic meta-analysis of the literature
The Cochrane Statistical Methods Group
What is a characteristic of a refereed journal?
A journal that has a panel of reviewers who review submitted manuscripts for possible publication
How can a print index be used
It shows sources that may have not been entered into an electronic database
Which tool will be most efficient to use for scholarly literature searches?
Online journals
How many years should be researched in the literature for an evidence-based project?
5 years is preferred
A student conducting an electronic search of the literature is simultaneously using two databases, CINAHL and MEDLINE. The keywords used selected 2050 citations. What can be deduced from this?
The keywords were not sufficiently narrow
A student finds most of the articles retrieved during an electronic search of the literature are not useful. What is the best next step to take?
Change the keywords and do another search
When should a literature review be conducted after data are collected?
When a qualitative research design was used
What is the most appropriate thing for a nurse researcher to do when beginning a computer search in a research study?
Use at least two recognized electronic databases
What is a characteristic of an audio recording of an unpublished research study reported at a professional conference?
Databased literature
What is the first step in the qualitative research process?
Review of the literature
In the qualitative research process, which step should be implemented before data collection?
Setting
Which of Kearney's categories of qualitative findings is considered to be least complex?
Restricted by a priori frameworks
Which of Kearney's categories of qualitative findings is considered to be most complex?
Dense explanatory description
Which mode of clinical application for qualitative research is considered to be the sharing of qualitative findings with the patient?
Anticipatory guidance